Latest update - 14 May 2018 www.pbtsm.co.uk

As mentioned back in 2010, this hypothesis has moved on significantly since this site was first published in 2006. The mathematics has become clearer for the interactions between meons and for the rings as a whole. These improvements have been included in the papers hyperlinked here, and the book.

Each time a step forward is announced in loop quantum gravity, string theory, M-Theory or any of the other not-too-far-away from each other hypotheses, I have to smile, because it brings them closer to ring theory. If only the proponents of these ideas could see them in terms of meons and rings, it would help them significantly. There are real particles underlying everything, although those particles combine to form units of nothing from which the background universe is made. A hypothesis that starts with only one type of particle, and its anti-partner, and only envisages a single form of motion of those particles, and a single composite structure that an even number of these particles form, must be a good candidate for the simplest explanation of everything, especially when the partner and anti-partner combine into, or are ripped apart from, a unit of zero properties other than physical size.

The site has been amended for the latest changes. However, these are really concentrated in the viscosity paper below rather than the written explanation later on this page.

The foundation paper shows how the use of SI units hides the equal strength of gravitational and charge fields and the it is the presence or absence of viscosity in a local environment that separates the relativistic and quantum frameworks. The speed of light is not a constant but is a terminal velocity set by the local environment, varying from close to zero around dense mass environments to above c where a no-background environment is established.

Please note that although the viscosity file includes how to calcuate the anomalous magnetic moments of the leptons, it stretches across all sizes and areas of physics to represent a theory of everything. Unfortunately the final step in the moment calculation has not yet been completed, so the paper remains work in progress.

There is also a one-page explanation of the theory which gives an initial oversight, called Preon Ring Theory.

I have produced an electronic book which combines all the previous work and explains how the project began and how each step leads logically to the next:

The is also an update paper showing the latest work, including that the DAPU set of units is the better physical set, rather than the TAPU set.<Update

The foundation paper:

Showing h and G to be dimensionless

There is a new paper in the form of 95 theses which gives a fairly complete overview of all the principles behind the work, but it is due to be published as part of the 2018 Vigier conference in Belgium in August

Additionally there is a short paper on a possible very short solution to Fermat's Last Theorem using a methodology related to relativistic additionA possible short Fermat solution.

The explanations following are a bit out of date, but give an idea of how the ideas developed into the two main papers published:

Within this explanation the underlying base particles may be termed either preons (pre-quark particles) or meons.

·<>The underlying universe is composed of zero mass black holes that can each be split into a positive and a negative meon.

·<>Meons chase each other to form loops of 4 or 6, 8, 10, 12 etc. 6-meon loops are rings that compose our matter. 4 and other number-meon loops are dark matter because they cannot match frequency and meon position with our 6-meon loop matter. Although 12-meon loops may be able to match frequency and intermediate positions, they are unlikely to have formed in large numbers.

·<>Positive mass rings only because only frequency of rotation is observable, orientation is not relevant. Total energy of each ring is always zero, so physical size defines gravitational and spin effects.

·<>Spins repel, with energy size equal to mass energy of the ring when axes aligned parallel.

·<>'Quantum' is a system with particle spins generally aligned, even if orbits/orbitals are unaligned. Mass and spin energies balance (KE and SE) giving a different dynamic formula to that for classical dynamics. The quantum balance is one of zero energy of motion and position, a quantum ZEMP.

·<>'Classical' represents systems with particle spins not generally aligned or separated too much for spin-spin interactions. The mass and spin energies do not balance, giving a different dynamic formula to that for quantum dynamics. The classical has zero energy in total too, but only over a complete orbit not at the KE/SE level as well. So a classical orbit is not a zemp except over a complete orbital period.

·<>Internal velocities of meons within ring and external velocities of rings define all mass energies of a particle, except when stacked.

·<>Internal twisting frequencies of meons plus internal velocities of meons within ring and external velocities of rings define all charge and strong energies of a particle, except when stacked.

·<>Spin is not ½ h for a particle, but the product of h for the meons and the relativistic frequency factor less the rest mass, (gx -1) h wo =:= ½ h wx. Each meon has the same size ‘mass’ energy but the sign depends on the meon rest mass. What we see as the ‘mass energy’ is the excess relativistic frequency of each meon, regardless of the sign of meon mass.

·<>What we call mass is the product of meon rest mass and the relativistic velocity factor less the rest mass, (gx -1) Mo cc =:= ½ Mo Vx Vx= mr cc.

·<>Spin energy is the same size as mass energy for all rings, (jx -1) h wo = (gx -1) Mo cc so that ½ h wx = mr cc.

·<>The actions between particles are based on the product of (1 - Ex), where Ex is an energy field due to another particle, rather than the summation of E due to that particle. So Product (1 - Ex) for all E, rather than Sum Ex, for all E.

·<>To find the total energy of a particle due to all others, the product formula must be used with due allowance for repulsive and attractive categories. Where the result is zero, there is balance and the system is stable. The complete formulation of this is based on the extension of relativistic addition of velocities or energies beyond the usual Vtot = (Va + Vb)/(1 + Va Vb) to the following product formula

.<>Etot = {Product [(1+Ex)] – Product [(1- Ex)]}/{Product [(1+Ex)] + Product [(1- Ex)]} over all x energies present, and where both attractive and repulsive energies are differentiated simply by sign. So an attractive energy would be treated in the formula as Ex = +Ea, and a repulsive energy as Ex = -Eb.

·<>Any system can be stable with a zero balance, but a system with zero balance can exist within an overall system that has no balance. A quantum system is the most frequent example of a zero balance system that can exist within a relativistic framework that may appear not to balance.

·<>All rings are stable internally due to charge and strong energies at all ring radii only if the meons are in motion. All rings are stable due to meon mass and charge energies at all ring radii, although each meon is chasing the one in front. To change the ring radius requires the addition or subtraction of frequency to/from the ring. The change from the frame of reference of the ring to an external frame of reference results in the same sort of introduced ‘centrifugal’ force. But the external frame of reference provides the frame for the measurement of frequency and thus mass of the ring. For each meon in the frame of reference of the stationary ring, it is as though the only energy fields that it senses are the ones produced by the adjacent meon from which it is trying to escape (it is being chased, but in the frame of reference it is not moving). So its axis of twist is pointed and rooted directly at that chasing meon

·<>The physical size and toroidal shape of rings produces four different interaction regions within which each ring energy may interact differently with other ring energies.

·<>The twisting of meons within each 6-meon ring defines the identity of the ring, based on the overall charge. There are different possible isomers for the neutrino and down quark, where the location of twisting meons may differ but the overall total charge is the same.

·<>The location of asymmetries in the rings defines a timing point for interactions between aligned rings. This can be called a colour force because only certain combinations of asymmetries across different rings can be combined to form an overall symmetric stack of rings. All rings have colour symmetry, although the electron asymmetry is hidden is hidden because each of the three asymmetric positions is identical to the other.

·<>A new constant of nature L shows how mass and magnetic moment are interchangeable through the change of rings size, so that a ring that changes mass also simultaneously changes magnetic moment without altering the ring's total internal energy. Externally another ring has to provide or take the energy changes within the first ring, so the ring frequency (mass) is conserved.

·<>The new constant L shows that the families of leptons and quarks are actually the same rings but at different sized radii. So the electron, mu and tau leptons are just different sizes of the same ring.

·<>The new constant also provides a unit for the size of ring stacks, both in terms of mass and magnetic moment, where longer stacks always have the same integer size in units as smaller stacks with the same overall charge. There is also a preference for free rings that have certain integer values of L.

·<>The underlying feature of the new constant is that the mass of a ring generates an additional magnetic moment, and both the original charge-generated magnetic moment and the mass-generated magnetic moment are present in integer units of L in all rings.

·<>With only a small number of different ring sizes it is possible to replicate the masses and magnetic moments of the proton and neutron, and to show how neutral kaons can have the same mass yet different parities and how they can change parity in flight.

·<>Limited General Relativity (LGR) is used to correctly include the effect of gravitation. It is necessary only to replace the flat mirror of an inertial GR system by a very large spherical mass Mp with a mirrored surface, the observers by very small mass clocks and to constrain the distance between the observers and the surface of the large mass to be so small that the gravitational field is constant over the distance that the light beam travels. This is the equivalent of speeding up all the clocks in this specific location by (1- GMp/rcc)-1, where r is the distance of the moving observer from the centre of the spherical mass and is constant over the distance travelled during the measurement. This is identical to reducing the energy of any particle at that point by (1-GMp/rcc).

The traditional differences between GR and QM, and some additional features, can be considered in the light of LGR and ZEMPs.

·<>Clocks. LGR for a particle system has clock adjustments for mass, spin, twist and charge fields. QM, based on a set of ZEMPs within the overall energy of a particle system, has no clocks because there is no energy in that balanced system and all ZEMPs are the same, in terms of sum of energies, although different in terms of size of the zero balances.

·<>Quantisation. Arises in both mass and charge systems, as seen above, although the quantisation depends on the ratio j = Sac/Ma in the bodies under consideration, which makes such quantisation difficult to observe.

·<>Renormalisation. Not required in LGR. Both mass and charge are treated identically, and the initial assumptions on existence of balancing energies ensure that infinities do not appear. For every increase in a particle energy, whether rotational or due to a translational frame of reference apparent change, there is a corresponding increase in its balancing opposite partner energy, with mass partnering spin, charge partnering twist and Mo partnering Qo. The energy observed depends on what energy is being measured.

·<>Non-Locality. Whilst LGR is local for the overall system, the ability of a ZEMP to split into separate parts allows non-local effects within the ZEMP. Since the ZEMP is destroyed on measurement, no information can be transmitted.

·<>Mass inflation. In the overall system the appearance of the rest-mass and rest-charge inflates in line with the relative velocity of the observer, but the real rest-mass and rest-charge do not change. Within the ZEMP, the mass and charge increases are balanced by spin and twist increases, respectively.

·<>Randomness. Within a quantum orbital ZEMP, all places are the same zero energy, so the likelihood of being at a particular place is the same for all places, and the only information possible on the particle is probabilities. The orbitals are defined as being the allowable places for the state ZEMPn balance of energies and the probability of being in a non-allowable place is zero.

·<>Information. The LGR interpretation, as one energy formula, which contains all existing parts, is simple and yet provides information on the energy of the system at any time. GR does not provide timely information, but a path over time.

·<>The ZEMP states provide a simple foundation for QM without invoking waves, Hilbert states or operators. If the system is a state n, then the particle is in that orbital.

·<>Measurement. The LGR energy is measurable, within h uncertainty, but this measurement destroys the stable orbit and ZEMPs.

·<>High or Low Energy Cut Offs. Within the initial assumptions, there are no energies at which LGR ceases to function. It works equally for planets, electrons and meons.

·<>Entanglement. Can now be interpreted as particles sharing a ZEMP, whether separated in space or not. Survives until measurement collapses the ZEMP.

·<>History/Waves. The history of a particle's path is not locked in place until after it has been measured, and even then it is only the probabilities that can be summed. Where they interfere, the results are wave-like, although the waves do not exist. Where they do not interfere, the results are particle like.

·<>Hidden Variables. There are no hidden variables in LGR, although a particle has a specific and real place (position and velocity) at all times, skipping randomly, within the ZEMP, and overall has specific energy states within the total system.

·<>Shielding. It is generally considered that the action of gravity cannot be shielded, whilst the action of charge can be. LGR treats both types of field identically. Energy fields have many times as much charge action as mass action, because of the relative unit charge and mass sizes. Fields of negative and positive charges in close proximity have their charge fields overlapping to such an extent that the resulting net charge fields are near zero. However, the gross charge fields are still there. The gravitational fields, lacking a negative ring-mass component to overlap the positive ring-masses only show gross positive values which are only balanced in quantum systems where the particles are well aligned. The underlying need to achieve zero energy in any system will ensure that the largest fields are balanced first.

·<>Classical/QM system size. In the limit where j = 1, there can be single rings or possibly large black holes. Such a quantisation of large black holes would mean that any two j=1 stars would have no effect on each other, since gravitational attraction would equal spin repulsion. Similarly, an apparatus with suitably pure internal spin alignment of all component rings, if spun sufficiently fast enough might be able to provide some opposition to gravitational attraction.

Conclusions

Certain aspects of the standard model become clear in this interpretation, and there are obvious benefits:

·<>Since all normal matter rings are composed of 3 M+ and 3 M,- there can only be single fermions with electronic charge ±1, ±2/3, ±1/3 qc and 0 and J= ±1/2, although stacks may replicate these.

·<>Rings are both particle and waves

·<>Particles with J> |1/2| are composites composed of stacked rings.

·<>Colour is a manifestation of phase difference between rings at the same rotation rates, both internally as degenerate states and externally in providing a balance of asymmetries in a stack of rings.

·<>Mass is a function of rotational angular frequency and motional momentum of the ring components, mediated either by the fractional twist of the ring when outside the Near region or by proximate neighbours, but showing 100% of the ring size when in a stack.

·<>The fine structure constant, alpha, as the constant underlying electronic charge q, represents a standard rate of twisting of meons, here described as a function of t. That standard rate depends on the energy of breaking apart the ZMBH initially into the meon and its anti-partner. It is possible that more energy might be available for the break, resulting in a higher fine structure constant, even up to the Planck value of 1, but it is unlikely that a smaller value would be possible except if the energy of twisting were being used in generating charge (against the background viscosity) and the resulting lower level would be a factor of old age in the meons.

·<>Three generations represent different ring sizes of the same particles.

·<>Carrier particles do not have to be carriers and may only be transient composites.

·<>No Higgs particle is required to generate mass.

·<>The ring sizes may have been fixed by inflation.

·<>The observation of only the photon J+1 suggests that it is the use of 'normal' rings (i.e. e- J - ½ electrons) for observation that preferentially shows only half the actual entities present.

·<>The requirement for synchronization infers that all short ring stacks within a longer stack, other than any temporary additions or replacements, should have the same frequency.

·<>The combination of M+ and M- in photon rings looks like the underlying state of space before M+ and M- were initially separated out from within ZMBHs to start chain formation.

·<>No higher dimensions are necessary than the three observed, and time is a construct of the rings once formed.

·<>Neutrino oscillation is natural in this framework, with size resonances representing simply larger or smaller versions of the neutrino ring.

·<>Quantum mechanics is shown to lie in the zero energy of motion and position states in a relativistic framework at the j = 1 end of the Sac/Ma scale.

·<>The ring framework, where every Mo-related energy has an equal and opposite Qo-related energy, ensures that no ring can exceed the adjusted Planck energy in total and so no infinities are possible anywhere.

·<>There is one underlying relativistic factor at work in each level of energies and one equation that describes the energies of interactions at all levels, from meons to galaxies.

·<>Free rings have mass Mi cc =:= h ½ wiA (APS units) =:= h ½ wiP/(2pi) (Planck units) and free photons have energies Eg =:= h wiA (APS units) =:= h wiP/(2pi) (Planck units).

·<>The uncertainty factor is h in APS units and h/(2pi) in Planck units.

The scheme proposed here is extremely economical. It suggests that all of matter consists of only one fundamental entity, which is itself present as particle and anti-particle, and this underlies the existence both of space and of all the particles that inhabit space. Additionally there is only one method of motion of the meons – they twist about an axis directed towards their chasing meon, and there is only one combination structure formed directly from meons – the rings. The related quantisation of quark and lepton charges is explained, the content of each generation appears naturally and the similarity between generations is obtained. The concepts of mass, electric charge, spin, time, colour, and flavour acquire meaning only at the level of the composite systems. The dynamics proposed lead to some simple relationships that may yet be open to investigation, including the size of the rings.

The following map has also been updated:

Have you ever wondered what the universe is made from? Are you interested in what started time ticking? In what existed before time? What underlies all matter?

I believe I have some answers – and they are simple in being based on splitting nothingness into two equal and opposite volumes – particles that I call ‘Meons’.

It is the result of splitting nothingness into equal numbers of meon pairs that starts the formation of the building blocks of the universe that we know. All loops have equal numbers of meons and anti-meons 4, 6, 8 , 10 etc. All loops not having 6 meons are dark matter.

After being split out of nothingness, the meons chase each other and form chains, then loops and finally the 6-meon loops, which I call ‘rings’, of just three meon pairs each. The formation of loops and rings is what started what we call ‘time’, before which there was no time. The 6-meon rings are what we call quarks and leptons. From here everything that we can see is built.

Along the journey, there are some implications that emerge from being able to split nothingness apart and have it form rings. These include the start of time – before loops and rings there was no time – and the existence of only two types of energy – mass-like and charge-like.

To differentiate the source of these two energy types, I have called the most basic level, which are the properties of the meons, ‘Flair’, a mass-like energy, and ‘Knack’, a charge-like energy. The same energy types at the higher level, which are the properties of the rings, are mass and charge, as we already know them.

However, there are important extra factors which affect how the two levels of energies act. What we call ‘mass’ in a ring is really the frequency at which the meons rotate – and is always positive. In a meon, flair can be positive, in the positive meon, and it can be negative, in the negative meon. And same flair types attract, as do same mass types. The result is that all rings have zero total flair and zero total knack.

It is also necessary to reinterpret the nature of energy, so that a consistent meaning can be read. Energy is a vector quantity – inward, outward or straight line. A body in motion already has energy and this is the same, at a distance, as having a force driving the body along its direction of motion. A body in a stable classical orbit has no energy of motion or potential over a complete orbit, other than its rest mass energy. A body in a quantum stable orbit has no energy of motion or position at any time, because its kinetic is equal and opposite to its spin kinetic energy and its outward motional energy balances its inward potential energy. Mass energy and motional energy are outwards away from the centre of mass. Potential energy is inwards. Kinetic energy is along the instantaneous line of travel of the body, as is spin kinetic energy, but each is of opposite sign of energy, so the two sum to zero. Similarly the mass energy is exactly equal and opposite to the spin energy of the ring, so the total energy of a ring in a quantum orbital is always zero. For a classical body, composed of mixed orientation rings, the kinetic energy and spin kinetic energy will be equal and opposite, as will the mass energy and spin energy, but the potential energies will depend on the separation of the bodies. So there will always be zero energy of motion and position, but the action of similar energies only on themselves will drive interactions, except when measured over a complete orbit when they will always total zero for a stable orbit.

The following chapters outline the basic presumptions and conclusions that derive from the splitting of nothingness into particles and are grouped into general categories, although there is considerable overlap across chapters.

This book explains the underlying assumptions and relationships in a non-mathematical way. The formulae showing relationships are simple, but would serve to distract from the overall message – that the universe rests on simple foundations, that everything is continually in motion, intimately interconnected and happening at the same instant in the underlying space that the meons inhabit. However, they are included at the end for those that would like to see them.

The book also addresses some of the fundamental paradoxes that have afflicted, for example, the competing interpretations of quantum mechanics and relativity theories. It suggests that both are correct, and need only to be interpreted appropriately. For example, Einstein and Bohr were both right. At the meon level, all future movements can be predicted over all time, but only when using meons as observers – but these are not available directly to us. At the ring level, which is the lowest level we can observe, the nature of the ring introduces uncertainty in the position of the ring and its motion, which is mirrored in the use by us of a ring to make the observation. In addition, the action of ‘skipping’, which underlies quantum mechanics, means that the position of a ring can never be known before measurement. So at the ring level no certainty is possible and probabilities are all that can be obtained. So Einstein was right that the most fundamental level is not based on probabilities, but Bohr was right that we have only probabilities available to us.

There is no need for multiple universes or more than three dimensions. Time is not another dimension in its own right, but a construct based on the motion of the meons when formed as rings, which we use to measure the motion of other rings.

Time’s past is in different parts. There was no time before rings formed, in our sense of the definition of time. And in the underlying space that the meons themselves inhabit, there is no time. Everything we measure as happening, over a period of our time, is happening at the same instant in meon space.

Nothing in the book should be read either for or against a prime-mover or supreme being.

**Fundamentals
– Core - Basics**

This is what the ideas are based on.

Most fundamentally, that physics is the same at all levels and can be applied everywhere and is driven by the simplest of objectives with the minimum of energies or forces and only one mode of fundamental motion.

Furthermore, that mechanics on the largest and smallest scales are the same, although there are extremes at which our current theories break down – including general relativity, although not due to renormalisation, but to the quantised nature of the rings and their differing rest-mass sizes within a composite body.

There are no force carrier particles. There are only two types of force – mass-like and charge-like. The other forces are these two in close action between rings that have both specific sizes, toroidal shape and frequencies of rotation.

The following list represents a list of assumptions and definitions that underlie the ideas:

1

Everything comes from ‘nothing’. ‘Nothing’ is quantised. ‘Nothing’ breaks into equal and opposite particles, called meons. Each unit of ‘nothing’ is a zero mass black hole (ZMBH).

The underlying universe is composed of ZMBHs.

Space has always been unitised into ZMBHs, and they are the background on and through which everything moves.

There is only one type of particle, with an anti-partner, which is required to explain everything in the universe. The positive meon and negative meon combine to form, or are split out from, a ZMBH.

All meons are always in contact with all other meons in their own space. In our space, meons have only one mode of motion, twisting about an axis directed at the meon that they are being chased by. In the stationary frame of reference of the meons themselves within the ring, it is like the chasing meon is teh only source of energy fields for the meon being chased.

2

A positive meon has positive mass-like energy called ‘flair’ and negative charge-like energy called ‘knack’. The negative meon is has the opposite properties.

Since there are only two energy types, there are only two force types.

The only forces are due to mass-like and charge-like energies.

Charge-like and mass-like forces are the same strength.

The energies Flair, knack, mass and charge are used specifically when required from now on, but otherwise mass and charge are used generically. This is because although flair and knack could be different to mass and charge, their actions are similar, except that all rings have only positive mass.

3

Symmetry is all.

4

All energies are vectors.

Mass acts as a vector energy, or force, outwards from the centre of mass.

A body moving at constant speed and direction has an energy of motion and a force already acting within it, and that force is represented by the body’s kinetic energy, which is a vector quantity. Whether the body is a single loop (as later defined) or an unstructured combination of loops decides whether the body has a total energy of motion and position of zero at all times or not when in orbit. If it does have zero at all times, then the orbit is quantum, if not then the orbit is classical.

The only energies that are absolute, as opposed to relative, are those taken with reference to the centre of mass of the universe.

It may appear that velocity has a specific direction, but it is the direction of the energy inherent in the motion of the body that provides the vector quality. The two are inextricably linked, in that every velocity requires an energy along its direction, but leads to misinterpretation when the velocity is ascribed vector, and the energy scalar, character, rather than the reverse.

Acceleration only comes from changes in speed. Motion in a curve requires a change in the direction of energy and is not acceleration.

5

The momentum of flair and knack are conserved.

6

Like masses attract like masses. Like flairs attracts like flairs. Unlike charges attract. Unlike knacks attract. Unlike flairs chase to keep mass energy constant by maintaining separation.

7

Only changes in separation involve changes in energy.

The underlying imperative of nature is the imperative of constancy of separation, called ‘restraint’. At each level, systems are driven to try to maintain separation between components. Rings remain the same size until they are altered by addition or subtraction of frequency, which we measure as energy.

Restraint is minimising changes in meon-meon separation and drives all observable features.

8

All physical parameters can be linked through their dimensions in powers of mass or charge. For example, energy is mass to the power of 5 (m+5), angular momentum m+0, velocity is m+2, distance m-3, mass m+1 and charge m-1.

Conservation occurs when a parameter or combination of parameters is independent of any other parameter.

In order to be conserved, a parameter or combination of parameters must be independent of everything, or dependent on nothing.

Any combination of parameters that produces a zero power of mass dependency (m+0) will be conserved, and conversely any combination that does not produce such a result will not be conserved.

When a combination of parameters has a mass or charge power of zero, that combination is a law or a constant of nature.

9

Viscosity provides positive inertia for any sign of flair or mass and ensures that time can only flow in one direction since it always slows the speed of meons.

Inertia is the energy or force that a body has due to its motion, and is the same energy or force that was used to set it in motion, ignoring frictional effects, or it is the energy or force required to set the body in motion

The inertial mass of both positive and negative flairs and masses will be positive.

The speed of light is the terminal speed limit approached by rings or meons subject to resistive force of the background viscosity proportional to the square of the velocity of the ring or meon.

10

Conservation of ring frequency conserves momentum.

A body or ring is not given energy, it is given momentum. What is observable looks like energy, but it is always momentum.

Conservation of momentum applies equally to charge as much as mass, although on a ring-only basis.

Momentum in a straight line is actually angular momentum about a point one Planck length from the centre of mass. Straight line momentum is another form of angular momentum.

11

The directions of action for motional and kinetic energies are perpendicular for circular motion. The KE of each ring (defined below) is equal and opposite to its spin kinetic energy, so a single ring will have zero energy of motion and position in total at all time in a stable orbit about a structured body composed of aligned rings. For an unstructured combination of rings in stable orbit about an unstructured body, the KE will not equal the spin kinetic energy and there will always be a net positive KE, except when measured over a complete orbit.

12

Conservation of energy is the same as conservation of angular momentum or motional energy, or kinetic energy or potential energy.

13

All bodies try to attain a state of zero total energy of motion and potential (ZTES), where only rest mass energy remains over one complete orbit.

Zero total energy systems are preferred.

14

Bodies composed of randomly orientated rings have forces between them that are the same in any non-rotating frame of reference, but bodies with preferred orientation directions have different forces in action, dependent on different rotation rates, except at the Planck energy.

Everything must be included in a system.

There can be no system in which only one body is considered to be in motion in an otherwise empty reference frame. All bodies are interlinked and must be considered as a whole.

15

Relativity implies only that no measurement can be inconsistent because of where or how it was measured, but it does not imply that there cannot be one frame of reference from which all energies within the universe can measured so as to sum to zero, which will be the centre of universe frame. In a universe within which the total mass of the component meons is zero, any point could be the centre of such a frame of reference.

16

Entanglement may be the result of a small number of different actions. Two rings may have approached within their combinatorial ring radius (different energy rings adjust to match size in photons) or two meons may have partly merged (as happens in photons). The result would be that they are then part of the same physical entity and the urge to maintain separation is of a no-time space type, where the inverse square law of action does not apply because teh component meons are touching in their own conjoined space and there is no passage of time directly between the two on becoming unentangled.

17

As far as an observer composed of rings is concerned, the universe is composed only of rings, with each ring as its own unique space and time. Being made of rings, an observer can only measure relative properties of other systems composed of rings.

Anything which is not within the ring system is unobtainable and outside the universe – even though it may be physically within the same volume, it is not observable and represents some point in meon space and no-time space, or a background ZMBH of average zero effect.

28

A spinning black hole must move and a moving black hole must spin.

19

Mass is due to ring rotation, whilst observable charge is due to meon twisting as the ring rotates. The size of charge generated is the same for all meons when in motion, regardless of ring frequency. With two signs of charge, energy is directional down to screw orientation level and nature must be handed.

20

This set of ideas, called ‘Ring theory’ goes beyond QM and relativity to consider meon flair and knack quantisation and the effect of rotating frames of reference.

The different forces required by quantum mechanics to explain experimental results can be simplified to only gravitational (where both mass and energy are treated equally) and charge, if the effects of energy and rotational reference frames are correctly considered.

The observable mass of any ring depends on the separation and the difference in frequency between the frame of reference of the observer and that of the ring. There are only two possible frames of reference that need to be considered, either that of the observer/rings or of a non-rotating stationary universe, although the former is complex.

When rings are close enough, each meon in one ring can see (be directly affected by) each meon in the other ring. When rings are far enough apart, it is the sum of the meon components that comprise the ring, as a group, that act. When rings are between these distances, one ring is too far apart to see the second ring’s components yet the second ring can see the first ring’s components – the larger force provides the resulting action.

Forces at work between rings are different, depending on where they are observed from, except at the Planck energy where all frames of reference will provide the same result, regardless even of the direction of rotation of any of the rings or frame of reference.

Two rings will have completely different interactions depending on the distance between them. Charge dominates at intermediate distances, but gravity and charge together dominate at smaller because of the large flairs and knacks of the individual meons in the ring when compared with the electrostatic charge, but mass dominates at large distances because of the neutralising tendency of charges clumping together.

21

Energy phase difference is time difference.

Ring theory predicts a slightly different relativistic theory.

Newtonian gravitation also needs to be altered.

Entanglement is a property of the meons, either within the same ring, or across rings from one meon to another, and is a QM feature.

The action of gravity and charge depend on the size of the rings as well as their separation.

The observed energy of a photon is the frequency which it actually possesses and the correct energy for any ring-based system is its total energy of motion, not its instantaneous energy.

The actual total energy of all rings is always zero because of the balance of different energies that exist within the ring. What we measure of the total zero balance depends on what we are using to measure a ring’s energy. Do we care about relative orientations of spin axes, or relative motion or separation?

22

Space is the background of zmbhs. The zmbhs can rotate, vibrate and move. These actions produce flux lines, electric and magnetic fields and gravity in response to the rings and which in turn affect the rings.

The background zmbhs act like a form of aether, although since they also provide the viscosity which sets the local light speed, it is not clear how they could be identified.

There is only one background, but may be one or more big bangs – the latter which might include rotation of the ring and loop contents. If the universe is defined to be just the ring and loop content, then there is likely to be only one at a time. If the universe includes the zmbh background, there is only one universe, which suffers occasional big bangs. The fine structure constant is probably equal to the energy needed to unmerge a zmbh meon pair, so the only variables that are not set at each big bang will be the ring sizes (masses).

**Fundamentals
– Core – Interesting**

The following list is of viewpoints surrounding the ideas, which emerge from the basic assumptions.

1

A theory of everything that is based on two particles that when merged together form zero mass black holes, but when separate chase two other similar pairs around to form rings, which are the quarks and leptons. All other structures formed with different pair numbers are dark matter.

2

Extreme states of matter require looking down the ‘wrong’ end of a telescope.

3

Since all properties can be expressed in simple powers of mass, or simple inverse powers of charge, the implication is very strong that mass and charge underlie all of the others, and that there is a basic symmetry between mass and charge.

Universal constants represent relationships between Planck scale parameters in which the powers of mass sum to zero.

4

The total energy of any isolated system is always zero, although it may not be observed as such. Each point in the universe is one of zero total energy, although the balance of each component energy may have different values, and it is the component interactions (eg mass to mass) which drives rings to move. Since all points have zero total energy, they are all equally valid frames of reference for measuring rotational frequencies as being absolute, but translational velocities can only ever be relative.

5

Open-ended transmission loses information.

6

Determinism without complete information leaves only probabilities.

7

Clockwork meons to quantum uncertainty in rings.

8

Equal numbers of meon pairs does not mean equal numbers of ring and anti-ring. Overall there will be a sum over all rings of zero charge and rotational components, but that does not mean that there are equal numbers of each type of ring. There may also be separate meons and some loops that are not rings.

**Fundamentals
– Core - Implications**

This list is of the implications of the ideas, most of which are obvious from the underlying assumptions but which are currently considered to conflict amongst themselves, as, for example, is the case in the conflicting interpretations of physics based on either quantum mechanics or relativity theory. The ideas here show that they are not in conflict, but are each correct interpretations, although of different physical levels in the pyramid of building blocks that form the universe.

1

All future events and all past history are currently happening now, at the same instant in time, and at the same place in meon space. What we see is an illusion of time and space because we exist in ring spacetime.

There is effectively no space between the meons, regardless of what we measure to be their ‘actual’ separation in our ring spacetime.

Entangled rings can become separated by what we measure to be large distances, and yet retain their direct no-time space connections. For entangled meons and rings, it is as if ring spacetime did not exist between them.

2

There are only two variables needed to set all physics in our universe (given adjusted-Planck units as unity), the fine structure constant and the sizes of the quark and lepton rings (not one variable, but one set of related variables).

3

Locality and non-locality co-exist. Rings can be both local and non-local depending on their total energy and the system they are in, whereas meons are non-local. A ring within a ZEMP is non-local. A ring with non-zero energy is local.

4

Superdeterminism rules at meon level, probabilities at ring level.

5

No need for a Higgs particle or mechanism.

6

A rotating system like a ring will appear to be both a wave and a particle at the same time.

7

There is not necessarily an imbalance of particles and anti-particles in the universe.

There is always a balance of positive and negative flair, knack, charge and spin throughout the universe.

8

The place of greatest density is where a single meon sits.

9

Inertial fields are due only to charge and gravity, from knack and charge or flair and mass respectively.

10

The universe cannot be rotating.

11

The more symmetric a system is, the lower its energy.

12

Ripples of ZMBH vibrations pass at above light speed, even though the ZMBHs themselves are overall stationary.

13

There are no acceleration forces due to change in direction.

14

The universe is a ZTES.

15

Stable orbits are ZTESs.

16

Vector kinetic energy sums to zero over one orbit in a classical stable orbit.

17

Forces depend on frame of reference of measurement.

18

All frames are the same at the Planck energy.

19

Energy, or lack of it, divides the realm of quantum mechanics from that of relativity.

20

Calculations based on vector energies provide collision solutions where no energy is lost between elastic bodies.

**Fundamentals
Level 0**

Level 0 is the most basic level of the pyramid that forms the universe and concerns how the nothingness of space, in the form of unitised zero mass black holes (ZMBHs), can be drawn apart into meon pairs.

The following list outline descriptions of the state of matter at this most basic level.

1

ZMBHs are everywhere.

2

ZMBHs need to be pulled apart into their constituent two meons to start observable objects forming.

When two opposite meons are partly or wholly merged together, then from any point outside the physical extent of the pair, there will be on average nothing observable.

Meon pairs form ZMBHs.

Positive and negative meons are particle and anti-particle pair.

3

ZMBHs vibrate or rotate only at frequencies above those available to separated meons.

4

ZMBHs can pass actions faster than light – instantaneously in their own space and time – these are non-local effects. Rings can act locally and non-locally.

Meons are governed by the laws of physics before rings formed, and afterwards.

5

A ZMBH is a ZTES.

6

Meons provide the greatest gravitational and charge fields possible.

7

Meons are the smallest volume and only real objects in the universe.

8

The density of each meon makes it a black hole without equal.

9

Flair, knack, mass and charge have equal strength at equal size and separation, although their actions differ.

10

Interactions by meons must be the same inside and outside ZMBHs. So the forces that drive photons and rings are the same as keep ZMBHs vibrating or oscillating.

The fine structure constant represents the minimum breath of life necessary to break ZMBHs apart into their constituent meons, as well as the electrostatic charge and the value of the twist of a meon, although the former is six times the size of the latter because there are six meons in a ring.

11

The lifecycle of a meon is one of gaining angular momentum and twist/charge sufficient to break out of the ZMBH state, only to be returned there when the ring it joins is stopped rotating exactly and the meon joins with an anti-meon to become a stationary twisting ZMBH. The meons can lose their twist by physical interaction with other ZMBH meons, or possibly over time as viscosity reduces their twisting rate.

12

A ZMBH separating into its constituent meon pair can be compared to a rip in the background of space, which is the unitisation of space into ZMBHs.

**Fundamentals
Level 1**

Level 1 in the pyramid concerns the meons. What they are made of and how they interact with each other to form chains then loops and finally rings.

The following list describes the state of matter at this level, just above the most basic level.

1

Flair and knack are the opposite sides of the same coin.

The maximum velocity of physical surfaces outside ZMBHs is light speed.

All meons have zero total energy, because for each positive energy in motion, there is a negative energy also in motion. But we only measure certain energies.

2

Meons are perfect charged black holes.

A meon is a ZTES.

3

Meons are the most dense particles possible.

4

Meons are affected by the viscosity of space proportional to speed squared.

5

No meon has any effect, other than collision, on any other similar meon.

6

The only symmetry breaking occurred when the universe began with its first rips and this locked-in an asymmetry (between variable mass and standardised charge) is due to the action of meon twist versus ring size..

7

Twisting breaks symmetry and twisting moving meons cannot be reflected into anti meons except through the time mirror. Twist hides the perfect underlying symmetry.

8

Separated meon pairs chase each other, forming strings then chains then loops and finally rings of even numbers of meons. Six meons is normal matter, all other numbers are dark matter.

9

Chains forming loops is when time began.

10

Only eight possible combinations of charge are possible within any 6-meon ring.

11

Rings look like waves.

12

Rings are the quarks and leptons.

13

Electrostatic charge may be a reaction of space to being rubbed as a meon spirals along on its travels.

14

The effects of a meon twisting is like an immensely strong symmetric gravitational gyroscopic action which resists the equivalent of toppling of a gyroscope. A twisting meon that is being pushed along by the meon behind (chased) is a gyroscope in such strong gravitational and charge fields that other particle interactions are of much smaller effect to it.

15

Inflation is inevitable in any ring system that starts as chains.

**Fundamentals
Level 2**

Level 2 concerns the rings that are formed from meons, which are the quarks and leptons, and how these rings interact to form photons, zerons, bosons and nucleons.

The following list describes the state of matter at this level, where rings change size as their energies change or appear to as a result of different relative observations.

1

Meon loops form rings.

6-rings are strongest.

6-rings give only quarks and leptons. 4, 8, 10 , 12 etc meon loops are dark matter.

Although each meon in a ring has a balance of motional energy, only the differences appear overall, but these always sum to zero.

Rings hide the bulk of their energy.

There is much more mass in any ring, in the form of positive and negative flair, than appears to be the case just by measuring its rotational rate.

2

All observable mass is motional energy of meons and is measured as a positive frequency.

3

All rings have the same initial energy when formed.

4

The mass of a ring is proportional to the rate of rotation of the ring multiplied by Planck’s constant h. (g-1)hWo = (g-1) Mo cc =:= ½ hw, ½ Mo vv, mcc where g is the relativistic factor g = (1-vv)^-0.5

Ring sizes are proportional to observable mass or energy.

When the size of a ring with mass is observed to be smaller (greater frequency) than it’s rest mass size, it will be observed to be in motion in order to express that extra energy.

Regardless of external velocity, the internal component meons do not change flair Mo, but the observable mass of the ring will change as expressed by the frequency of rotation of the meons in the ring..

5

There is an upper limit to the speed of a ring because of the viscosity of the universe, where the product of volume and viscosity is constant.

Rings are limited to travel at less than light speed by an amount dependent on their stationary mass, unless in a photon.

6

Quarks and leptons have the same ring structure, but the component meons have different combinations of handed and unitised twisting.

Equal meon densities can result in different mass densities.

Quark and lepton families are only different sizes of rings.

Leptons and quarks have helicity.

7

Since we use rings containing meons to measure rings containing meons, we cannot observe properties other than those of rings or meons.

8

There is no combination of meons that can be compressed within any volume that will be denser than a single meon.

9

Only subluminal velocities in ring space except when the ring is a ZTES.

10

Magnetism is caused by meons rotating in rings.

There are no magnetic monopoles.

The mass of a ring and its spin ½ energy are different manifestations of the same motion of meons around the ring. They are the same size, but opposite type.

11

Temperature is ring frequency.

Absolute zero corresponds to the ring system becoming stationary, with consequent very large ring size.

Negative temperatures may correspond to temporarily reversing the direction of ring rotation.

12

Rings stack.

13

A neutrino viewed from above looks like an anti-neutrino viewed from below.

Some neutrinos isomers are variants of anti-neutrinos, out of phase by multiples of 60 degrees, rather than the usual 120 degrees of the other rings.

14

Because quarks are asymmetric, they need other asymmetric rings to balance.

15

A symmetric ring such as the electron will have an observable mass identical with its rotational frequency.

The quarks rotational rates imply different masses to those actually observed, which are fractions of those rates.

16

A ring can form a ZTES when in a stable orbit.

17

The only system that has no central source of potential, but still has motional energies, is a ring of meons.

18

The meon components of rings, and the systems formed by rings, have Planck’s constant angular momentum or units of the latter divided by twice Pi, respectively.

19

The increase in ring size of rings with mass in gravitational field is warped space.

20

The strong force and charge are equal in size, with the former being a polar effect which sums to zero for every ring.

21

Changing the direction of rotational motion of the meons around a ring changes the sign of each electrostatic charge generated and the sign of twist – the ring has become its anti-partner. If it were possible to have a stationary ring, with each of its meons spinning appropriately, it would be possible to begin the rotation of the ring in one direction, and generate, for example, an electron whilst rotating the opposite way would generate a positron.

22

Spin is a gravitational-like effect that only becomes apparent in situations where the rings get close enough to each other, and then the underlying similarity of the rings shows as the quantisation of those spins. But all spins repel, proportional to the angle between the ring planes, with a maximum when parallel or anti-parallel.

23

The mass and magnetic moments of all rings are the same at the Planck energy, when rings can only be distinguished by their charges.

24

There are 42 different ring types and 42 different anti-ring types in each ring family. Each different type is a different combination of the same total outcome of charge over a ring, an isomer of that type of ring. The electron has only one type, because of its symmetry, which exists in three different phases at 120 degrees from each other, but they are indistinguishable. There are 6 types of up quark, 15 of down quark and 20 different neutrinos.

25

The ratios of formation of each different ring types will be proportional to how often they appear from any random chain breaking and forming. Thus electrons ought to initially make up 1/42 of the total number of rings outstanding, an initial 6/42 for up quarks, for example. But the asymmetry of most of the down quarks and neutrinos means that this ratio may no longer hold due to black hole symmetry sieving.

26

All the rings in normal matter are the symmetric, or pseudo-symmetric, types and they do not break and reform other rings in normal circumstances. Nor do they have super-symmetric partners. Only when inside a black hole do rings break into chains and reform as potentially different rings. The general trend is for a black hole to trap asymmetry and eject symmetry into the universe.

Taking the ratios required to turn any ring into any other ring and the original ring-type ratios, it is possible to arrive at an estimate of the fraction of matter that makes up what we see at the moment, and how much must be in other forms. The result is that there are 25,132 total possible type-combinations. The ones that form atoms and normal matter only number 819 of these. There are 1,153 symmetric neutrinos left, 1,464 symmetric up quarks and 1,596 symmetric down quarks. But these are outnumbered by far by the number of asymmetric neutrinos, 11,744 and down quarks 7,749. So the bulk of ring numbers must appear in exotic forms, not nucleons. If masses for each type of ring are attributed in line with their normal isomers, the amount of symmetric ring matter making up nucleons and normal matter is about 7.5% of the total. This applies specifically based on the lowest mass family of rings. The two higher mass families will bias the ratio slightly higher.

The remainder, assuming that neutrinos not in cores have little or no mass, is in the form of zerons, symmetric up and down quarks, asymmetric down quarks and non 6-meon rings. The latter two could all by now have been sieved by black holes, and turned into 6-meon photons or zerons.

Zerons fill every possible physical space up to their maximum extent. The Casimir effect is due to the exclusion of zeron rings that no longer fit in the gap between the plates. The space outside the plates has greater energy due to the zerons that still exist in that volume, providing a greater total energy at each point than in the gap where some zerons have been excluded. So the plates are forced together by the difference in zero point energy between the space in between the gap and outside.

27

The universe has sum of energy equal to zero, although the sum of the masses of the rings is not equal to zero. Due to the vector nature of energy, the sum of energies is structurally equal to zero, because all the outward motions cancel symmetrically. So it is only possible to get dark energy if the universe ‘balloon’ is popped and outward energy released like the pressure drop in a popped balloon. That will only occur if the universe is a balloon or bubble inside another universe.

**Fundamentals
Level 3**

Level 3 concerns ring stacks and how they interact, either within the stack as the colour force or from stack to stack as the nuclear or strong force.

The following list outlines descriptions of the state of matter at this level, where stacks can be long or short and strongly or weakly bound together.

1

6-rings stack to form other particles. Non 6-meon rings cannot stack with 6-meon rings, although they may be able to stack with same-meon number rings.

Light is six partly merged zero mass black holes rotating in a ring as they travel, each meon ZMBH component chasing its partner at maximum (light) speed as a part of a short chain of length two, in the direction of motion of the photon.

A photon is ring and anti-ring rotating in the same sense, whose total of twelve meons are partly merged into six ZMBHs rotating at the frequency of the photon.

Photons exist because the spin of the meons does not allow matched meon pairs (partly merged across the ring and anti-ring of a photon) fully to merge and form ZMBHs. The maximum merging by meon pairs across rings in a photon is the same as the minimum needed by the pair to break out of a ZMBH state. If meons twisted less than the fine structure constant, the ZMBHs might be able to reform completely.

Photons have no total energy, only frequency in the same way as rings with mass.

A ring with rest-mass can become a ring without rest-mass only when it merges with a partner anti-ring to become a photon, but reverts when photons are captured and become stationary.

Ring combinations form ZTESs like zerons or photons.

The shape of a photon ring does not have to be a circle or oval, it can also be compressed to that of a line perpendicular to the direction of motion.

2

Altering the apparent energy content of a photon requires a change in momentum of each meon in the photon’s two rings, which sums to zero overall. Conservation of momentum leads to conservation of frequency, which we measure as conservation of energy.

3

Zeron have two forms. Zes are electron and positron counter-rotating and have zero spin and charge observable, but a mass of twice that of an electron. Zos are neutrino and anti-neutrino counter-rotating and have no mass, charge or spin observable, except when close to rings with mass when some mass of the neutrinos becomes observable by induction.

Zerons can become observable or be split in the presence of strong gravitational fields, and this is what pair creation arise from.

Zes may be another source of ‘dark matter’, apart from the non 6-meon loops. Zos may be a source of transmission of the actions of charge and gravity.

4

The electron and neutrino can stack in a nucleus. Their meon components are large enough and are affected directly by meons in other rings in the stack.

5

Virtual photons are real.

6

All photons are similarly red-shifted in proportion to distance travelled by the component meons.

7

Colour forces are where the energies of rings are the same, but the phases are different – especially noticeable in quark rings where there is threefold asymmetry, although asymmetry is also present in neutrino rings. Only electron rings are completely symmetric, so will have all three phases indistinguishable.

Which colour variant of quark is in a stack depends on what the others in the stack are, and what it is measured to be will depend on when it is measured. A red quark in one stack may be a green quark in a different nucleon stack, although the energies are the same – it is just the rotational phases that are different.

It is rotational phase balance that requires colour and anti-colours to be present in stable quark/anti-quark particle combinations.

All three core-quarks in a nucleon stack are attractive until they find a balance at very short distances, beyond which their interaction becomes repulsive due to their loop nature.

Spin of the ring combined with meon twisting is magnetism at its lowest level.

8

Photon ring size increase in gravitational fields as a gravitational red shift.

9

Combinations of rings in a stack can move between stacks. These are described as force carrying particles, such as photons, but are just fairly stable pairings that have been dislodged from one stack and joined another.

10

Photons captured by orbital electrons move to a separation from the electron such that local light speed is the same as that of the electron.

11

Electromagnetism is caused by pseudo-tumbling photon rings.

12

The basis for the cores of nucleons appears to be, from the masses and magnetic moments, that the proton consists of seven rings , Vy, Vx, UpA, DnQ, UpB, Vy, Vx and that the neutron consists of seven rings, Vy, e, UpA, DnQ, UpB, Vy,Vx where the notations x, y, A, Q and B denote specific isomers of that ring type.

13

When a free electron is moving, it will be surrounded by many photons in the form of neutrino or electron pairs, and the mass of the stack will be larger than that when the electron stack is in a stable orbit in an atom. The electron stack must lose energy to move closer to a nucleus. But it needs to gain energy to move into a nucleon stack.

**Fundamentals
Level 4**

Level 4 concerns some of the features that Level 3 structures can have.

1

A photon does not know its future path when it is emitted. The actual path of a photon is randomly skipping about on a sphere expanding at local light speed. No history is available until the photon is observed. The measured path is the sum over the actual skipping undertaken around the expanding sphere before it was observed.

2

The neutrino can take on the size of whichever ring it is attached to without appearing to gain or lose energy, only changing frequency.

3

The nucleus of an atom is a ZTES as are the stable orbits of electrons around that nucleus.

4

An electron free gas is where the electrostatic and spin repulsions of the electrons are balanced by their aligned strong and mass attractions.

5

Photons are already attached to electrons as stacks in the form of same-rotating neutrinos/neutrino-anti-neutrino or electron/positron and the energy that they take away represents what they had already added to the naked electron to allow it to move to a higher energy orbit in the first place. The free electron could have many such matched neutrino or lepton pairs travelling with it, interacting continually with the environment in a sort of balanced chaos of attachment and detachment.

**Fundamentals
Level 5**

Level 5 concerns groups of Level 3 structures and the properties they can have or the results that can occur because of their interactions.

1

Randomness is caused by vibrating ZMBHs, Zerons, neutrinos and unentanglement of particles.

2

Uncertainty is due to loops and rings and the skipping of ZTES rings.

3

Inertial forces are the only way of describing the balancing motion of particles in gravitational or charge fields.

4

Cosmological black holes breaks rings into chains and reforms them into zero mass configurations so that they can escape.

Cosmological black holes act to reduce the apparent mass of the universe in filtering massive and massless rings into only massless rings.

Broken rings can transfer their rotation to black holes.

Zerons can escape from black holes.

Strong gravity and charge fields break rings into chains.

5

The centre of the Earth is a ZTES.

A balloon is a ZTES, apart from the skin.

6

It is also possible that the three inflation amounts represent changes imposed on rings that were oriented in the three different axes of space. So x, y and z axes correspond to each family of ring sizes, and subsequently their orientations became mixed when inflation ceased. It may be that our ‘normal’ rings set a particular orientation of spin up/down, which is impressed from the initial inflation of that set. The leptons should represent the largest value of inflation along each axis, with the quarks limited in some way and not reaching maximum expansion.

7

The presumption is that all constants (possibly including the fine structure constant) started at unity and those that are no longer unity in Planck units have decayed to their current values over time. The masses of the rings started at unity and decayed through inflation.

8

Red shift is due to two sources, not one. The usual is expansion, but there is also viscosity (tired light).

9

String Theory is based on massless strings forming loops. A ring is a massless loop in total due to the meons. It has extra degrees of freedom due to the twist orientation of meons as they move, which provides the different charge values, and the observable mass of the loop is its frequency.

**Structure
– Underlying**

This chapter explains the underlying structure of space and why there are the forces in action on the particles that there are.

1

Flair and knack are intimately linked through their signs in both space and time.

Flair is ‘something’ with positive volume and knack is ‘something’ with negative volume.

2

There is a preference for bodies to maintain separation.

Bodies stay at the same separation unless acted upon by a force.

3

When constancy of separation is paramount, there is no concept of acceleration of mass due to change in direction of motion.

4

Two appropriately matched spin 0 zerons could collide and form two opposite spin photons – but energy has not been created.

5

Volume and time combine in only four ways.

6

Positive volumes attract whereas negative volumes repel.

7

Twist breaks symmetry.

8

Meons have balanced volume, time and energy.

Meons do not change volume.

9

Positive volumes try to clump together within the smallest surface area.

Negative volumes try to maximise surface area and stay separate.

Positive volumes are flairs and masses, negative volumes are knacks and charges.

10

A positive-time flair (positive flair) and a negative-time knack (positive knack) is a positive meon with balanced time.

11

When ZMBHs unmerge, the resulting void in space is no longer part of the universe.

12

A large ZMBH unmerging event, a rip, could leave a massive void behind, but we would not know and rings would pass across or around the void without delay.

13

A sponge universe, where space exists only in the matter surrounding the voids would be indistinguishable from a contiguous space.

14

Zeron splitting by ZMBHs and rings exceeds black hole ‘pair creation’.

15

In the super-dense state caused by the meons at the start of the big bang, the whole volume is effectively a barrier type material with instantaneous transmission of impulses. In this string state there is no horizon problem. A lone positive meon at one end of a line of ZMBHs can replace its next door neighbour in a ZMBH with the same replacement effect transmitted instantaneously along the line of ZBMHs until at the other end a different meon is ejected to become the lone positive meon. The particle is not moved at above light speed, but its properties are. The appearance is of instantaneous motion of the lone meon from place to place. This is the basis for skipping, which underlies non-local motion, entanglement and superposition.

The initial super-dense sea of meons allows density changes to be smoothed out initially very quickly, but with decreasing speed as the volume increases.

16

Inflation is when the distances between meons in rings increased dramatically- the expanding rings translating the energy between their initial and final ring sizes into external motional and potential energy.

17

Photons may make up some of the missing matter within the universe.

18

Ring pressures cannot exceed meon pressures.

19

Work acts as a positional store of mass, kinetic, motional and potential energy that may be released at a later time.

Work acts as the converter of outward to inward energy, or vice versa.

20

Collisions between particles should include potential fields as well as energies of motion, so that all conservation laws take the same form.

21

When considering energies, all present should be included at the appropriate separation. So for intermediate distances, probably not the fundamental flair and knack of the meons, but the ring mass, spin, charge and strong force and all motional and potential energies arising from these.

22

Provided the velocity of a body is appropriate and on the spherical plane formed by the appropriate orbital radius, the actual path of the body on that plane is immaterial. An example is the gyroscope, which has motional energy in its spinning disc due to the velocity of that disc, which acts away from the centre of the source of potential, the Earth, and acts as an upward force to keep the gyroscope vertical.

23

What we measure as mass is the rotational rate of a ring, which due to background viscosity, should reduce the ring frequency over time in the same way as a photon tires. Unless there is a mechanism that keeps the frequencies of rings with mass constant, then what we call mass is not conserved, although the meon flairs are conserved. In the same way, what we call energy – again ring frequencies – will not be conserved except over short timescales, due to the action of background viscosity.

24

Even if each ring is its own space-time, and the whole universe observable to ring systems is composed of these overlapping ring volumes, it is still possible to measure distances between otherwise identical phase and frequency rings because they are not the same space-time system, only identical copies.

25

Polarisation is a property of materials due to their interatomic spacings which interreact with the rotation of incoming photons. Rather like screwing a bolt into a hole with a pre-formed internal thread, the bolt will only begin to enter when the thread and grooves mesh correctly. So photons entering a material are like bolts with the material as the holes. A photon with the wrong phase to enter the material will be reflected back. As in bolts, where the distance between adjacent grooves must be the same as in the hole, the photon needs to have a frequency that fits the material. Some materials will not allow the passage of some frequencies, even where the phase is right to enter. Some materials may allow the passage of certain size photons, without imposing phase entry limitations.

26

Gravity acts in some ways like a form of viscosity, in that the larger the gravitational field, the slower will be the local speed of light.

**Structure
– General**

This chapter is concerned with the general features of energy, forces and interactions.

1

If the fine structure constant is fixed, it is defined by the internal structure of the meons. If it is variable, it started at unity.

2

Motional energy acts outwards from the centre of rotation and is balanced by potential energy in a stable orbit.

3

The kinetic energy of a body in a stable orbit sums to zero over one complete orbit. In a quantum system, where kinetic and spin kinetic energies have equal size but opposite sign, the total energy is zero at all points in the orbital. In a classical system where kinetic and spin kinetic for the bodies are not equal in size, there will be a net kinetic energy and the total will be zero only over a complete orbit.

4

Straight-line motion is not the norm.

5

Orbits are preferred.

6

Motional energy is an outward vector.

7

Straight-line motion is only truly achievable in the absence of mass – other than the mass being considered.

8

Gravitational, charge and ‘inertial’ forces can be viewed as actions between two particles, each of which believes the other to be the only particle in the universe.

9

The inertial action of a stationary particle defines the velocity that the moving particle must have in order to be in orbit around it.

10

Neutrons are stable, but the sea of neutrinos bathing them dislodges the electron in the nuclear stack when an occasional neutrino has the right energy and hits the stack correctly.

11

A stable nucleus is one that requires more energy to destabilise than any neutrino can provide.

12

Brownian motion may be partially due to neutrino flux.

13

Diffraction is off edges not gaps.

14

The influence distance, outside which a ring’s components cannot be seen directly by another ring, is like a depression within which the meons hide their actions, so that only the sum of their actions over the ring is observable. The faster the rotational rate, the deeper the depression, but the shorter the view to the ring’s observable horizon.

There is an ‘influence distance’ inside which a particle moving in a field can ‘see’ that the field is generated by a ring or rings composed of individual meons. Outside this distance the particle ‘sees’ only the total overall contributions of the component meons as a composite field.

15

The overall picture for interactions begins with point-like charges and masses, and equal forces in the reference frames of each particle, and ends with rotation (spin) dependent, charge independent forces equal in both frames, having gone through a stage where the forces in each frame of reference are different.

16

A low energy photon composed of an electron and a positron ring cannot break apart until it has been given sufficient energy to allow the two rings to have at least their proper rest mass energies when separate.

17

A ring takes its size from the total energy of position that it has, plus only its rest-mass energy. In a gravitational field the energy at any point will be lower than empty space. The ring size increases (lowers frequency) to adjust to this. The net result is the ‘field mass’ and it is this that will be the base for any motion.

18

Gravity waves have probably not been observed because the extreme strength of the field around all meons and ZMBHs may quickly attenuate the long range and relatively smaller field gradient events of exploding stars.

19

Nucleons, with smaller influence distances than electrons, see the orbital electrons as composites but other nucleons as meons directly, whereas electrons see the meons in the nucleons and the meons in other orbital electrons.

20

For isolated systems there is no uncertainty or chaos. The observation of a system introduces uncertainty and chaos. To eliminate uncertainty, it would be necessary not to observe the system – but then there would be no information at all for that observer.

21

Frame dragging is just the effect of gravity on the rings in the vicinity of strong rotating fields. The rings get elongated by the field gradient, drawn in at their nearer edges in the direction of rotation and dragged as a unit in the same direction. The same will take place at the ring level close to the meons within other rings, so that there may be a background effect even in ‘empty space’ caused by free rings, photons, neutrinos and ZMBHs which elongates the ring slightly and lowers the frequency or mass. This is the equivalent to the presence of a ‘negative energy’ within the vacuum, because the ring has less energy in the vacuum than when completely isolated. Here ‘negative energy’ is used to imply a reduction in energy, not negative mass.

22

The cosmological constant may be interpreted as the average of the effects within the vacuum. If the elongation of a ring by a meon in another ring is called ‘imposition’, then the cosmological constant at any point in the history of the universe is just the average imposition of all rings within the universe. The gravitational red shift of a photon is a measure of the change in imposition that would affect a ring moving between two points.

23

Imposition and inflation are similar in that, at extreme energies, large meon densities and very short distances, they are the same. However, imposition is the action of a meon directly, although from a distance, on a ring and the differential action on its constituent meons, whilst inflation is the direct action of meons in one ring with meons in the other ring, by direct impact as well as the actions of gravity and charge, which result in teh rings expanding rapidly.

24

Red shift can be better understood as a receding source having negative motional energy, which reduces the energy of the signal sent out to the observer, whilst an approaching source has positive motional energy.

25

Neutrinos bathing every point within the universe causes the dislodging of rings within stacks –radioactive decay. Where there are more neutrinos, radioactive decay will happen faster. Zerons inhabit all space to the maximum (think of an onion and it’s spherical layers as a zeron structure with two opposite rings centred on one point at each increase in radius by 1 adjusted Planck distance). Where something physically disallows the zerons to remain in place, the result is the Casimir effect. The points outside the gap have more zerons centred on each point and so push the plates together. The zerons represent the zero point energy of the universe, against which all motion of rings occurs.

**Structure
– Rings**

This chapter covers the structure, energies and interactions of rings.

1

Closed loop chains are rings without standardisation or quantisation.

2

The size of the quarks and leptons (their masses) was probably set by a series of inflation events after initial unmerging and ring formation.

3

Mass is ring size or frequency.

4

ZTES rings are the basis of quantum mechanics and rings are why wave mechanics describe the motions of all particles as Newtonian mechanics for quantised masses with quantised energies.

5

Composite objects, made from meons, will be under the largest tidal forces when they are near a lone meon.

6

As the separation of two rings decreases towards the size of the larger ring, the force between the rings changes from ring-ring to meon-meon and from attractive to repulsive inside the smaller ring size – this is the basis of the colour force.

7

When two rings are stacked, one above the other, the action between them will depend on the relative sense of rotation of the two.

Rings form stacks. The components in the stacks may rotate in a plane, but stay similarly aligned.

Stacks form photons, nucleons, bosons and zerons. Particle structure is based on the stacking of rings composed of meons.

The massless neutrino will stack because it will be bound in the stack by the other rings that see the component meons in the neutrino directly.

Nuclei form because the proton and neutron stacks are of similar size and so half of every ring in a nucleon stack is rotating in the same sense and at the same rate as half of every nucleon stack, and the other half are similarly attracted because of their opposite sense rotation (spin). So the strong force is a function of direct meon-meon interaction in the same rotating frame of reference, equal in size to the charge force between those rings at some stable separation. The Casimir effect probably helps keep the stack together by reducing the radii at which zerons can exist within the nucleus, providing some external pressure to keep the stack together.

The meons in two stacked rings rotating in the same sense and at the same frequency will feel the other meons directly. Where the frequencies differ, the action will also depend on the frequency difference.

8

A quark is a ring trying to be circular but under rapidly alternating attractive and repulsive forces on each meon. The only way to become stable is to become attached to other rings with opposite imbalances or to stack next to other rings whose rotation achieves that balance.

Electrons become muons and vice versa through passing energy and magnetic moment, or ring frequency, via interaction with neutrinos.

9

Weak decay is the small muon ring expanding to become an electron ring, using a neutrino ring to take away the excess rotational frequency.

Rings will be bound together by charge, but also by gravity when the maximum effect will be when all the rings in a stack have the same rotational rate. But rings cannot all rotate in the same sense because some pairs would form strongly bound bosons and photons, which would break up the stack. So the sense of rotation of the rings must alternate down a long stack.

10

The action of strong gravitational fields causes the deformation of rings and the apparent loss of mass, which is just a frequency reduction.

A muon hitting a proton stack can dislodge a neutrino to form a neutron plus outgoing neutrino. The effect in reverse allows neutrons to decay into protons with the loss of a high-energy electron.

11

The total number of charged rings in a stack and how they are moving (their masses) gives rise to the magnetic moment of a particle, not the net overall charge.

12

Rings enclose an area between the rotating meons which gives rise always to two magnetic poles above and below the plane of rotation, so there are no monopoles.

13

Once rings have formed, unless the ring can be broken, and the meon made stationary, the meons will not stop spinning, so charge will be conserved.

14

The size of a ring with mass, and thus its frequency, affects how anything composed using that ring experiences the passage of time.

15

A neutrino has mass induced by distortion of its ring when in close proximity to ZMBHs, zerons, meons and other rings. The closer the passage, the higher the apparent mass.

When mass is induced in an otherwise massless ring, it is due to the deflection of space caused by a ring with mass. The massless ring does not do the deflecting, but shows where the deflection exists. This is still measured as an induced mass within the massless ring because of the deflection. A photon is a deflectionless raft on space which cannot be tilted. A quark is in imbalanced raft gyrating wildly as it deflects one way then another – and requires other quarks to balance the deflections.

16

Rings close enough together can see each other’s waves of oscillating action of their constituent meons like ripples in a pond and can tell what properties each other has.

When the rings are different sizes, between specific separations, one ring may be able to tell what the other is but not vice-versa, so the action between them depends on their relative sizes, properties and separations and what each can tell of the other.

17

As a ring expands, it takes up more physical space and reduces its frequency. If all rings began as Planck length radius rings, they have exchanged time for space during their expansion to their current sizes. This may be the underlying way in which space and time are physically interlinked. The volume of the ring – its area multiplied by the meon cross-section is a direct measure of the time content of the ring.

18

Volume over Time (VOT) for a ring is a constant at Planck’s constant multiplied by the Gravitational constant and divided by the square of the speed of light, despite is mass power of inverse four, which is an artefact of the ring system.

VOT provides a factor of 2 Pi and may be where this arises from so often in physics. For a non-ring system the relationship would be expected to be r^3/t, but for a ring system the relationship will be (2 Pi) r^3/t.

19

Where a parameter has a relationship with the ring volume, a 2 Pi factor will appear, whereas where there is no volume connection there will be no 2 Pi. So the angular momentum of a ring is h/((2 Pi) whereas the angular momentum of a meon is h.

20

One pillar on which relativity is based emerges from conservation of VOT as a natural consequence. As the external velocity of the ring rises, so does the energy of the ring and the ring needs to contract in order to maintain VOT. This contraction in size corresponds to an increase in frequency of the ring – which mirrors the energy increase due to the external velocity.

21

Rings are limited in the energy that they can gain, in that the maximum is the adjusted Planck energy. For rings with mass (except when in a photon), this limits the maximum speed that they can travel at. The higher the rest mass, the lower the speed they need to reach in order to have total energy equal to the adjusted Planck energy. So a body composed of multiple rings will separate into different ring types as the speed of the body increases. Above the maximum speed of the largest mass ring, the body will disintegrate. So for compound bodies, relativity breaks down at this maximum speed. Above this speed, relativity must be applied to rings individually. This is ‘limited general relativity’ (LGR) in that general relativity (GR) is correct for composite bodies only up to the speed of the largest rest-mass ring. LGR implies that there are no circumstances in which any ring mass can exceed the adjusted Planck mass and so there are no infinities in LGR. GR applies in low-c and LGR in high-c environments and the bodies considered in each are different.

22

Rings in motion tumble as they move externally, so that the energy that they possess as a result of that external motion is represented in extra rotational frequency of the ring, and straight line motion is really some form of spiral. So there is really no such thing as straight line motion, only motion whose average progress results in a straight line trend. Basic motion is more simple harmonic or spiral about the line of advance.

23

All composite bodies in motion move in a similar vibrational way, in motion about a centre one adjusted Planck length from their centres of mass.

24

Momentum in a straight line is actually angular momentum about a point one adjusted Planck length from the centre of mass. Straight-line momentum is another form of angular momentum.

25

The ZMBH foam background to space causes rings travelling along to be buffeted from side to side by half a adjusted Planck length as the rings travel. Since there is no preferred direction of action to the foam, the rings must on average travel in a straight line, but with side-to-side motion along the way. This is a form of SHM or spiral motion. This is another way in which the energy of a body can be likened to a wave, and its position is uncertain as it travels to within a small amount.

26

The patterns of furrows in space caused by the meons ‘maximum-deflection in the rings drags or twists space as they rotate, and the frequency that this occurs at, together with the identity of the patterns, allows the actions of one ring to be felt appropriately by another ring when close enough. Further apart, it is only the deflection of space (by either charge or mass) that can be felt. The maximum deflections of space are all the same size for all meons, either ‘up’ or ‘down’ with respect to mass-like or charge-like fields.

27

The effect of two rings combining as a photon is to create a rotating ‘wedge’ of charge and magnetic gradient across the photon – its electromagnetic field.

28

A positive motion spin ½ neutrino has left-hand helicity.

29

A negative motion spin ½ neutrino with left-hand helicity is a positive motion spin ½ antineutrino with right-hand helicity.

30

The difference between neutrinos and anti-neutrinos, being only one of relative viewpoint, leads to the incorrect classification of neutrinos as only left-handed and anti-neutrinos as only right-handed. There may not be equal numbers of neutrino and anti-neutrino even though there are equal numbers of meon and anti-meon.

31

Even though the neutrino has zero observable mass, because it has size and frequency it will interact with other rings that approach close enough to see the neutrino’s meon components directly – the distance of action is related to the size of the both the neutrino and the other ring.

32

Spin 1 ring combinations are fast and strongly bound, whilst spin 0 combinations are weakly linked and slow so the force between rings is strongly dependent on spin (direction of rotation of rings).

**Structure
– Bodies**

This chapter looks at the structure and properties of groups of rings, like stars or planets.

1

The Moon orbits the Earth because there is no overall force on it, over each orbit. If there were, the separation would change. It has zero energy due to motion and position over one complete orbit.

2

Large spinning holes (called cosmological black holes (CBHs) to distinguish them from the meons which are small black holes) can themselves form a type of non-quantised string or loop.

3

When a CBH breaks a ring, the spin of the ring is not lost, but may appear in different rings on exiting the black hole.

Inside a small enough CBH, a ring will be broken into chain. The twisting orientation of the meons will not be lost inside the CBH.

At the outer edge of the CBH will be a region of chain-star where rings and chains are continually breaking and reforming rings.

4

A zeron entering a CBH will be broken into its constituent rings before entering.

5

A zeron can be formed to escape from a CBH out of strings that become ring and anti-ring at the outer edge.

CBHs emit zerons that can become photons and rings further away from the CBH.

A CBH loses energy via escaping zerons and the membrane decreases until there are insufficient chains to form a membrane.

6

Photons emitted from CBHs will have minimum frequency proportional to the size of the CBH at that time. There is an energy they need to just have in order to escape.

7

A CBH can be considered as concentric spheres of different states of meons.

8

When rings break into chains at the edge of a CBH, it does not mean that space and time break down, only that the normal objects with which we measure space and time are no longer adequate.

At CBH edges, distances are no longer measurable with our rulers.

The breakdown of our measurement of space and time at a CBH horizon implies that there is one frame of reference above all others that is important – that of the stationary meon, which is also the stationary non-rotating centre of universe frame.

9

As a ring approaches a CBH it reduces in mass until it becomes massless at the horizon and breaks into a chain.

At the CBH horizon, a ring has zero total energy (motional plus potential, with zero rest mass energy). It can skip around the shell at zero energy.

10

The motional energy of a broken ring is still within the chain, but is no longer measurable using rings.

11

The mass of a ring is used to enlarge the physical size of the ring and enter a CBH, giving that mass or frequency to the CBH.

The energy of ring rotation is passed to the CBH before the ring reaches the horizon, which is the same as saying the ring’s mass enters the CBH.

12

Surface of a CBH is a zero total energy membrane.

Incoming rings add to the CBH membrane, exiting zerons subtract from it. The CBH grows or shrinks around this balance.

13

CBH Membrane may not cover whole surface.

The temperatures of the Earth and Sun are higher than they would otherwise be because of the sea of neutrinos in which they are bathed.

14

Volume of a CBH is immaterial, only area matters.

15

Outside CBH horizon are positive total energies, inside negative total energies

16

A small CBH is a dense star with a surface composed of chains.

**Structure
– Media/Barriers**

This chapter considers what makes a material a barrier or transmission medium, from the perspective of rings. Also, looking at the energy of bodies in fields, this chapter looks at media from an energy perspective and shows where the dividing line between transmission and tunnelling starts, as well as why a particle’s path is not known until the particle is observed..

1

Reflection only occurs at barriers.

2

Transmission media reduce the apparent velocity of light.

3

Barriers give the appearance of superluminal velocities.

4

The difference between a transmission and a barrier medium is the number of photon stacking sites and how quickly an incoming photon can replace an existing stacked photon.

5

A transmission medium has many photon stacking sites but there is a slow stacking process.

6

A barrier medium has few stacking sites, but the replacement process is fast.

7

The photons leaving a medium are not the same as the ones entering and all photons travel at local light speed.

8

ZMBHs are a barrier type medium for meons and ZMBHs, although not for rings, except when they are entangled. It may look like an electron travels from x to y, but actually it is the meon properties that are transmitted instantaneously from x to y. The meons a x are not the same meons as at y. The six meons entering the barrier are not the same as the six meons exiting, although their properties are.

9

For a stable orbit the reduced field B multiplied by the inverse of unity minus the velocity squared, all less unity will be equal to zero (Bgg-1=0). This is the stability energy factor (SEF). If it equals x instead, then the body will escape if x>0 and will decay if x <0. This energy limit also divides the realm of barriers from transmission media for a specific body. Effectively a body escaping from an orbit will behave like a wave, and can be described as such. The body with insufficient energy will behave as if it were in a barrier. So a particle will experience barrier-like potentials if its energy of motion, which is the SEF multiplied by its mass multiplied by the square of light speed (mcc (Bgg-1)), is less than zero.

10

Primarily the question for barriers is not how high the barrier is, but how quickly the barrier rises. The SEF is another way of describing the pressure of a system, for a large number of rings, whose outward energy is not equal to their inward energy. Here the skin retaining the pressure really is a barrier.

11

The equivalent of orbital decay for a barrier is either tunnelling or reflection, depending on the slope of the barrier.

12

Barriers are not necessarily real barriers – it depends on the energy of the particle and the slope (or vertical potential difference over a very small distance) of the change in potential that forms the barrier.

13

A photon will always have total energy of motion equal to or greater than zero, and so will always have wave-like solutions for any potential V<1, regardless of any barrier height or slope. Only when V=1, B=0 will the photon not be wave-like, and it will reflect. For a photon, where there is never tunnelling since all solutions are wave-like, there is always a probability of a photon traversing a barrier, except at B=0. This does not imply that all photons will always get through barriers. Instead of a step that needs to be overcome by adjusting energy, as in the case of a particle, a photon which always travels at light speed, in its local potential field, will adjust its actual velocity dependent on that potential. For a photon in a V=0 field, its velocity will be c. A photon travelling in a V=1 field will be stationary. Between these extremes, the photon will be travelling at the local maximum velocity.

14

When considering materials, the electrostatic contribution could be closely associated with permeability and the gravitational contribution would correspond to permittivity.

15

The dividing line Bgg=1 marks the reason why inertial and gravitational reference frames are not always equivalent. For acceleration in the absence of a potential field, the energy will always be positive and have wave-like solutions. When a potential field is present, the only wave-like solutions will be when Bgg>=1, and a body with such energy will be free of decay. When Bgg<1, the energy of motion will be negative with decay solutions only. In this domain the inertial wave-like solutions are not equivalent to the gravitational decay-like solutions.

16

The stable orbit, where total energy is zero, is the dividing line between positive and negative total energy of motion and position frames.

17

The negative gravitational frame is one where a body has been captured, the positive gravitational frame is one in which the body is free and cannot be captured. The inertial frame completely ignores gravity.

18

In a slit system the gravitational, charge and spin energies of the barrier affect the phase and frequency of a transiting particle by setting up standing channels along which the particles move at constant energy. Some changes in phase and spin alignment are possible in moving from one point to the next at constant total energy, but some are not. This defines the probabilities for the paths available to the particles and results in interference and diffraction patterns, despite only having to have one particle pass at a time. The effect is like saying that the barrier, not only the particle, has a wave-like nature and the components of the barrier set up standing waves of fields over which the particles pass. The physical layout of the barrier, with one, two or more slits, will be apparent to the particle in the corridors formed that it can traverse, no matter that it only passes through one slit. The outward expanding sphere representing the allowable places that the photon can occupy in empty space will be distorted by the presence of slits, so only certain positions in relation to the slits will continue to be allowable places. Only after the photon has been observed will it be clear, from where it has been observed, which route it has taken – and that route is not a straight line, but will randomly skip over the whole allowable sphere between emission and observation. The effect of the ZMBH barrier is like a no-time space corridor for rings to travel along – but it is the properties that travel, not the rings themselves – and the effect when considering two entangled rings is like the two being in contact all the time.

**Structure
– Entanglement**

This chapter shows how particles can become entangled and what that means.

1

For entanglement to occur, two particles must come within the influence distances of both.

2

Once entangled, two particles can remain as such regardless of their observed separation since the whole secret of entanglement is the lack of space between the entangled particles along a corridor between the two which is a ZMBH barrier of instant transmission of the properties of the meons, not the meons themselves. The external measure of their separation may produce a great distance, but this is outside the no-time space corridor along which they are in contact.

3

For normal gravitational systems, the influence distances are so small as to be within the bodies themselves. Such systems will move subject only to mass and charge energies and not spin. For smaller masses, the influence distances are very large, by comparison. When within its own influence distance of another body, a photon, or any other particle, will move as a result of the balance of mass, charge and spin energies, and will treat its motion as being within a potential barrier and try to move with constant potential.

4

When a photon splits apart into its two constituent rings, the two remain joined by the ZMBH barrier/corridor/lack of space between them, they are entangled through a corridor of entanglement, and meon properties, but not meons, can pass without the passage of time between the two. It may be possible for multiple networks of joined corridors to form as a super-network of corridors of no-time and no-space, rather like water inside a sponge. So any point in the network is in the same place as any other point, and the outer edge of the sponge is connected with the inside of the sponge. There is no meaning to the shape of the sponge itself and it is possible to reverse the image and connect the entire sponge surface to one central point, with no ‘outside’ the sponge at all.

5

Photons have similar attributes to networks of entanglement. A photon, in its own reference frame, does not experience the passage of external time or distance, it feels no-time and no-space. It is only the view from the outside that gives the photon a frequency and speed. So the photons, which are two entangled leptons with each meon partly merged, actually carry around their own very short no-space corridor/ZMBH barrier all the time.

6

Within a slit barrier, the particle affects the barrier’s energy and the barrier affects the particle’s energy, but the total is always unchanged. The path affects the channel and the channel affects the path.

7

The paths followed by individual particles will have regions or channels along which the energies will not be correctly adjustable, or will have a low probability of being adjusted to fit those channels. These will correspond with minima in interference and diffraction fringes (although there is no actual interference in the wave sense – it is the physical layout of the barrier that defines which points have high and which low probabilities). The high probabilities correspond to allowable places on the expanding sphere representing where the photon can skip to.

8

No matter how much the wave function for an electron is split up, the electron spends a proportionate amount of time, over the long term, in each separate sub-volume of the wave function. Each separate volume will appear to contain a fractional electron, but the single electron, or its properties, is randomly jumping between volumes. This is an example of self-entanglement, where the component meons are always in contact in their own space and no-time, so that the particle they represent is non-local with itself and can physically appear at any point within its wave function – which is only a representation of where it might be found anyway.

9

Where multiple particles have become entangled, when they are separated, yet retaining their entanglement, each particle will randomly appear in the combined wave function until entanglement is destroyed. A photon, split into entangled electron and positron, will be represented by a wave function split into two parts, where one part will contain the electron and the other will contain the positron. Only when the entanglement is destroyed will each part of the wave function stop the random skipping of properties through the ZMBH barrier between them and the identity of the ring in each volume become permanent. The destroying of the entanglement may be simply by measurement or observation.

10

Being entangled is the norm for all particles. Being unentangled is the abnormal condition.

This chapter explains what energy really is and how systems prefer to have as little energy as possible.

1

Energy is a vector.

A body continues moving in a straight line because it already has a force within it – its vector energy. That energy may be measured to be its kinetic energy but if the body is a single ring, it will also have an equal and opposite amount of spin kinetic energy. The total of the two will always be zero for a single ring, but since we only observe the KE part, it will appear to have that amount of KE.

The energy of a body in motion is the force, at a distance, that has been given to it in order to make it travel at a specific speed in a specific direction.

Energy and momentum are conserved in virtual processes.

Total energy is always zero in a complete system.

Forces result only from changes in speed, as required when moving from one orbit to another or from one speed to another in a straight line.

A force on, or a vector energy of, a body has already had work done on it during its history and it retains the capacity to do work only to the extent of the vector energy that it possesses at that moment.

Nature prefers smaller vector and scalar energy. This is achieved by keeping the net vector energies as close to zero as possible – when they become pseudo-scalar. This is another way of describing stable orbits and constancy of separation. In a stable orbit the inward vector potential energy is balanced by the outward vector motional energy, giving a zero vector, or scalar net energy of movement and positional energies. So below even the principles of constancy of separation may be the underlying preference of nature for scalar energies. The end result of the use of all available vector energies will be zero, or scalar, energies.

Systems are driven towards least-energy imbalance positions, which are ZTESs.

Energy is only observable in ring systems, using rings to observe, and no other system can hold energy (in the normal sense of energy).

2

Only inertial and positive total-energy gravitational frames are equivalent in net energy.

Negative total-energy gravitational and inertial frames are not equivalent.

3

The amount of energy represented by photons emitted increases over time as stars convert rings with mass into massless photons.

4

If the big bang was the initial emitter of rings, then there can be no external motion due to any other mass because the universe contains all mass. The centre of the universe cannot move or rotate.

5

Since straight-line motion requires energy, and the reverse direction requires reverse sign energy, the symmetric expansion of the universe away from any central point has a zero total energy requirement – regardless of the sign of total mass.

A universe with overall positive total energy can only continue to expand; one with overall negative total energy can only contract. One with zero overall total energy can expand or contract.

6

The vectors for the energies of a body in a stable orbit are potential, inwards towards the centre of motion, motional, outwards from the centre of motion, and kinetic and spin kinetic energy – both planar in the plane of balanced potential versus motional for a quantum system where KE + SKE=0 and the total ‘kinetic’ is zero. For a classical system of multiple orientated rings KE>SKE and there will always be a net KE. Thus in the absence of any potential field, and associated centre of motion, the kinetic energy vector will be along any direction that the body is travelling. Where there is a potential field, the kinetic vector is in any direction on the spherical, or elliptical, plane formed by the stable orbit.

Mass energy, motional energy, KE and spin kinetic energy are planar for orbits, along the line of motion of the body, and are all outward energies, away from a centre. Potential energy is towards a centre. Work can be either.

When the motional and potential energies of an orbiting body balance in a stable orbit, and over a complete orbit the kinetic sums to zero, all that remains is the body’s rest mass energy. This is a zero total energy state (ZTES).

Where two orbital systems interact, there must be some direction of positive and negative energy measurement.

Motional and potential energies balance to zero at every point of a stable orbit, even in elliptical orbits, although the size of the balancing energies alters around the orbit.

Planets form stable orbits to achieve ZTES status.

It is possible to have motional energy without potential energy.

The motional energy of a body does not depend on the direction of motion of the body on the plane of motion in a stable orbit.

Zero total energy of motion and potential for a body means a stable orbit and zero force over some time period.

The two energies present, positional and motional, are linked to the only two possible directions of action of the forces that could move a first body from one orbit to another around a second body.

7

A body in a stable orbit around another body has an outward motional energy balanced by an inward potential energy.

The normal state is to be in an orbit, without forces to move from that orbit, and straight-line motion is the odd case.

The balance of energies equation describes the balance of potential against motional energy, not potential against kinetic. The ‘energy’ of a stable orbit is only one part of the ‘kinetic’ energy. For a single ring KE+SKE = 0. For a classical body KE>SKE.

Electrons do not need to decay in stable orbits because they have zero energy of motion and position at all times.

The area of a stable orbit will not change over time.

All stable orbits have zero total energy of motion and position. The difference between orbits only allows for larger or smaller motional versus positional energies to be balanced.

8

Motional energy only exists when there is a point about which a body is rotating.

9

At each point in an orbit, a body will have a particular kinetic energy, being the instantaneous difference between the body’s relativistic energy and its rest mass energy. It is the same for spin kinetic energy, relativistically affected identically, and KE+SKE=0 in quantum orbitals. For classical bodies KE>SKE and there will be a net KE at all points of teh orbit, but they sum to zero over a complete orbit.

The total kinetic energy of a body in a stable orbit will always be zero over a complete orbit.

Any measurement of kinetic energy made for other than exactly one orbit will produce a non-zero result.

A body in straight-line motion has a force on it, which is the body’s kinetic energy and spin kinetic energy acting as it moves.

10

A body travelling in a straight line is one that must have a non-zero kinetic energy and spin kinetic energy, since it never completes an orbit.

The force that impels a body from rest into straight-line motion defines how much energy was given to the body and how much it retains, acting directly on the body, to keep it on its motion.

11

A ZTES is when the total energy of a body, apart from its rest mass, is zero.

A ZTES can contain particles in motion that are themselves not in ZTES states, like the atoms in motion within an inflated balloon (but excluding the skin). Each level of pressure is a different ZTES state, and the preferred ZTES is a zero pressure since the higher-pressure states are trying to become lower states.

Atoms fill electron shells with the highest energies first so that the general environment is trying to form a ZTES by hiding the highest energies first.

12

The direction of the pressure in a gravitational system is inwards, whilst a gas-like system has pressure directed outwards. The balancing point is when the gravitational pull balances the motional push – which describes a stable orbit.

What are called energy levels are only the amount of work done to establish the orbits, and available for release, based on just the mass kinetic energy, not the spin kinetic energy.

Any consideration of the energies of a body in a group must include reference to the remainder of the group, when the group has no external velocity.

A non-Newtonian system has one specific point from which all motions and energies must be measured.

Where the whole system under consideration has a total energy equal to zero there will be an infinite number of equally valid centres from which to measure motion and energies – which would be the case in a universe equally populated by both positive and negative masses which are stationary. The same can be the case for an expanding/contracting universe made of positive and negative masses because the vector energies total zero, although there will be just one centre of universe. In a zero energy system it is important to make allowance for the energy of the sub-group under consideration and its speed with respect to the rest of the system, so that the moving reference frame is recovered, along with relativistic invariance.

13

Meons do not have periodicity except in their spinning, so the basis of human measurement of time is fundamentally different to that of meons. Rings involve translational motion in a circle, whilst meons can only judge relative rotational rates. So materials composed of rings will be affected in measurement by relativity. Their actual energies never alter, only the observation of those energies from different viewpoints.

14

For meons, there is one universal frame of reference, that of no time and no space.

Meons appear to themselves to be at rest, despite their actual motions. Other rings may be in motion, but only rings could tell that, not meons.

15

Unless rings are aligned parallel and rotating at the same frequency, their rotational reference frames will not be the same except at maximum frequency.

16

Expressions of energy are from the viewpoint of the system itself – either the potential source or the centre of motion of the system. The energy is either the instantaneous value that the body has at some point in its motion or the work done on the system or available for release from the system. All energy levels of atoms are defined in terms of work put in or releasable, rather than energies over complete orbits. It is these energies over complete orbits that truly represent the energies of bodies in orbit.

17

The simple system underlying the second law of thermodynamics is that of ring-ring interactions. A slower frequency ring cannot speed up a faster one. So higher frequency (hotter) rings can only transfer momentum to slower (colder) rings. However if the colder ring was moving transversely with sufficient velocity, its meons could drive the meons in the faster ring to a higher frequency, given precise impact. Whether this allows the second law to be broken depends on how ‘hotter’ bodies are described – by meon velocity or ring velocity. The former is larger mass/higher frequency photons versus the latter higher pressure systems.

Reverse second law action also occurs when chains reform inside cosmological black holes and emerge as rings.

18

When considering particle interactions there must be some direction chosen, in each space axis, as positive for energy or motion.

Having a force within a body in motion opens up the possibility of a limit to the velocity of any object due to some form of universal viscosity or friction – similar to terminal velocity in air. No matter how large the force (energy) that a body can possess, it will never physically travel faster than the limit, light speed. In non-local motion, it is not the same meons that start as end the journey, although teh composite will retain its original properties. Such a universal viscosity or friction will also provide a non-reversible arrow of time. Once something is in motion, it will never be able to recapture the work (force, energy) lost to that viscosity or friction, and as a result the availability of energy will always decrease, or the entropy will always increase, when bodies are in motion.

19

In an elliptical orbit, the change in the rate of change of area traversed around the orbit in unit time is continually changing, and is equal to the kinetic energy. The kinetic energies at each point will sum to zero around the orbit if the orbit is stable.

Present conservation laws are based mainly on conservation of angular momentum, with conservation of linear momentum and energy at a lower level, as approximations whose accuracy increases over increasing distance and time.

The most basic level of conservation law involves the motion of particles around other particles, rather than straight lines, and suggests special status for circular or elliptical motion.

20

Incorporating potential fields within the mass-energy of a body should be done by representing them as reductions from the non-field mass-energy. For a potential field V, the reduced field B will be 1 - V.

Potentials are added in the same way as relativistic velocities so that no matter how many potential fields are present, they never sum in excess of one, so that the net field never turns negative. This treatment rests on the underlying assumption that all fields are energy reductive.

21

Pressure is the inverse balance of motional energy against potential energy in any system, and is positive when acting inwards towards the central point.

A system may have a pressure and yet still be a ZTES.

22

Stationary rings at maximum frequency need no further energy to travel transversely at light speed, because they already have enough energy to do so in the meons, which are already rotating at light speed. So a ring at maximum energy can change its speed, but not its energy, and acceleration does not lead to a change in energy and vice versa. Furthermore, with no external energy or force required to accelerate the ring, F=ma may not apply at high energies, and Newtonian mechanics become low energy phenomena.

23

The dividing line between quantum mechanics and relativity is the possession or otherwise of total energy, excluding rest-mass and the balance of KE versus SKE. Rings that have zero total energy due to motional and positional energy, i.e. they are ZTESs, at all times will behave quantum mechanically. Rings with non-zero total motional and positional energy except over a complete orbit will be subject to Lorentz invariance. So rings with no energy may skip around the wave function non-locally, whilst rings with energy are constrained to travel at under light speed.

This chapter explains what time really is and how it started.

1

No time before loops and rings.

‘Prior to time’means ‘before loops formed’. Chains forming loops is when time began. We cannot step outside the loop system to measure or be measured.

Meons are themselves timeless.

2

There is no underlying time – everything we measure with rings is happening at the same instant.

3

Energy phase difference is time difference.

4

No reverse time.

5

The time component of knack and charge tries to balance, so opposite charges attract.

6

The time component of flair and mass tries to balance, resulting in constancy of separation.

7

Meons in a moving photon move at light speed but the clock of the ring is its rotational frequency.

8

Stationary photons are photons that have been captured by other rings and the two constituent rings in the photon have unmerged.

9

The slowest passage of time will be experienced by observers in the gravitational or charge field of a lone meon, or adjacent to a ring.

The distorted clock time of a particle or energy measurement will be uncertain because of the close presence of rings and zerons.

When measuring the distorted time of a large object in the field of many rings and zerons, the average uncertainty will be zero.

Rings change size in gravitational fields.

10

Our clocks and rulers are rings.

Time is only our concept of measuring the rotational rate of the objects that represent our surroundings, and how those objects move from one state to the next.

11

The arrow of time points to increasing number of time units.

The arrow of time is not the underlying time.

Time has one arrow because speed and resistance are always positive.

Space and time are both flat – they are not affected by mass or charge - but the rings, which are our clocks and volumes, which measure other objects, are affected.

11

Time ceases when rings break.

Rotational systems are special.

Stationary universe is a unique frame of reference.

12

If meons did not exist outside ZMBHs there would be no measurement of mass or time, but space would still exist.

13

There can be no time experienced by any meon not in a ring. Meons in a ring believe themselves to be at rest, and so they experience no time and are not affected by relativistic measurements and remain at the same adjusted Planck mass although their energies increase relativistically. The balance is to zero because as the energy of each Mo increases, so does each Qo energy. The rings, in contrast, have repetitive events and so the specific energies related to the observed motion of the rings, the motional energies of the meons and translational energy of the rings, will be affected and appear faster or slower relative to the observer.

14

There are three different measurements of time. One involves volume related measurement, using units divided by 2pi. One uses direct observation of meons. One is the most fundamental of all – that of underlying space – which has no time units.

15

Space and time are quantised within the universe above the background ZMBH space through rings. The average rate of passage of time is related to the average frequency of the rings in any volume.

16

All photons in a stable orbit will tick at the same rate as they would do at infinity, effectively not adjusted for the gravitational field that they are in, because they travel at the same speed. A stable orbit is the same sort of environment as being at infinity and so a ring in a stable orbit will have no energy due to motion or position, only rest mass equalled by spin energy.

A photon in a stable orbit looks like a stationary mass, except that it has no rest mass, so it has no energy at all. This is not saying that the photon has no frequency, only that the energy of its circular motion sums to zero over a complete orbit.

17

Different rings at different frequencies will have experienced different rates of passage of time since the start of the universe, so that different volumes of the universe may be at different times measured in their own frames of reference relative to the original big bang in which they all formed ‘simultaneously’.

18

The lifetime of the universe is set by the size of its smallest mass ring.

19

To an external observer, Schrodinger’s cat is both dead and alive until observed, but inside the box the cat will either be one or the other at all times.

**General
Relativity**

General relativity (GR) is only a special case of a more all-encompassing relativistic framework within which the quantisation of mass and charge of the meons allow replication of all observed phenomena – including quantum mechanics in a ZTES framework. Limited General Relativity shows that the maximum speed for rings depends on the rest-mass of that type of ring, so relativity affects rings differently on an individual basis.

1

GR is how rings are observed and affect each other, on a large scale gravitationally.

Relativity is the study of rings themselves and how they change with motion and their appearance depends on what is used to observe them.

Relativity applies to the transverse motion of rings, when they are not ZTESs, and how rings alter due to that motion when viewed by observers, but does not apply to rotation of rings in their own frames of reference, which is where quantum mechanics applies, when the rings are ZTESs.

Relativity is translational motion and non-zero total energy with randomly oriented rings. Quantum mechanics is zero total energy systems based on rotation, with structured oriented rings .

2

The difference between straight-line and curved motion neatly separates the two treatments as special and general relativity respectively.

3

Inertially accelerating and gravitationally affected frames of reference are not necessarily equivalent, so acceleration and gravity are not equivalent.

4

Rings in a gravitational field elongate due to the gravitational difference across the ring.

Gravity fields reduce masses.

As a ring with mass falls into a gravitational field, it elongates towards the gravitational source and breaks into a chain when all its energy has gone.

5

Size of inertial mass is the same as gravitational mass.

6

Renormalisation is not necessary.

This outlines the extent of where QM is dominant.

1

Quantum mechanics is the study of ring systems and their interactions when the rings are ZTESs and KE+SKE=0 at all times.

The quantum system includes the rigid orientation of rings within nuclei and atoms.

2

Quantum mechanics is rotational.

3

Quantum mechanics and relativity are compatible.

Relativity is translational motion with randomly oriented rings. Quantum mechanics is rotation with structured oriented rings.

4

The quantum realm takes over when the system is not random and is close packed compared to the size of the constituents, with ZTES systems.

5

The wave nature of objects is contained within the ring structure underlying quantum mechanics.

**Randomness**

This is an outline of how randomness arises out of superdeterminism.

1

Everything is predictable, but only if the initial conditions are known exactly.

2

Superdeterminism describes where all actions of all particles over all time can theoretically be predicted. In superdeterminism there are no alternatives to any actions. Into this system are injected the actions of the ZMBH background and zerons, whose precise properties can never be observed from place to place, and unentanglement of particles we can observe from relationships with particles we can’t observe across the universe resulting in apparently random interactions and uncertain measurements.

3

Randomness underlies quantum mechanics because of insufficient knowledge of any condition at any time and our lack of knowledge without measurement – which upsets the system..

4

Quantum probabilities disappear as the bodies under observation get too large to be affected overall by the randomness of the ZMBH, zeron background and unentanglement, and as the number of rings and their orientations increase such that KE+SKE>0 and mass potential energy exceeds spin potential energy and the body no longer has zero energy at all times..

**Odds
and Ends **

Consciousness is the action of a system in not choosing the easy option, even if that easy option is doing nothing, and then observing the effect.

2

Memory gives a system a survival advantage because without memory, all inputs would seem to result in random outputs.

3

The unbalanced ratio of massive to massless rings may provide an insight into the age of the universe.

**Paradoxes**

This is a list of some of the paradoxes that are explained by the ideas in this book.

0

Einstein and Bohr were both right. At the meon level, all future movements can be predicted over all time, but only using meons as observers. At the ring level, the nature of the ring and quantum skipping introduces uncertainty in the position of the ring and its motion, which is mirrored in the use of a ring to make the observation. So at the ring level no certainty is possible and probabilities are all that can be obtained. So Einstein was right that the most fundamental level is not based on probabilities, but Bohr was right that we have only probabilities available to us.

1

The measurement of time requires the use of objects that have periodicity.

A rotating system like a ring will appear to be both a wave and a particle at the same time.

2

Negative flairs attract negative flairs.

3

The anti-particle to any particle has all its parameters reversed, so that the opposite of a ‘spin ½’ electron is the ‘spin -½’ positron, not the ‘spin ½’ positron, for example.

4

An electron in a stable orbit has no energy (other than its rest-mass which is equal and opposite to its spin energy) and can jump from point to point on that orbit without having to move along a continuous path.

5

Light gets tired as it passes through space (viscosity is a universal constant).

Red shift is a measure of the time that a photon has been travelling.

Universal viscosity slows meons in massless rings and can be observed as a red shift in a photon that increases with distance travelled by the meons.

6

The final outcome of the universe will be entirely massless rings, which will eventually decay via completely tired photons into ZMBHs again.

7

The physical size of meons removes the need for renormalisation.

8

Rings and particles are affected by the strong mass and charge fields near Zerons and ZMBHs and the interactions, although averaging zero, will seem random.

Because of the randomness, predictions will not be possible for individual rings, and so probabilities rule.

9

If the universe were to rotate about a skater or Newton’s bucket, neither the skater nor the water would be raised, but the universe itself would move outwards.

10

The twins paradox does not take into account the phase change between the rings composing each twin that occurs in the younger twin due to his changing ring sizes during his travels.

A reduction in the passage of time should correspond to an increase in energy and vice versa.

The rotational frequency of the translated twin will increase in line with the work done on it away from the initial point, and then decrease as it returns – and both twins will still have the same frequency when back at the initial point, Each twin’s frequency, or total energy content, defines at what rate it experiences the passage of time.

The travelling twin will arrive back at the initial point at the initial frequency – but it will have a phase change difference when compared with the original non-travelling twin. This corresponds to a retained time difference.

11

Only in stationary rotating systems will energies be able to be defined absolutely. All other systems will only allow relative energies to be established.

12

Our experience of time is proportional to our total energy. A photon, having zero total energy (although it has a frequency), experiences no time. However, being an exact balance of positive and negative energy at flair and knack level, it still has rotational energies inherent within itself.

13

The greatest binding energy for an approaching nucleon to attach to a nucleus is paradoxically when the nucleon has zero incoming energy relative to the nucleus. Here it will have precisely the same size and frequency component rings as the nucleons and will be attracted by the same size forces that bind the nucleus together – it will be caught and become a nucleon.

14

Any extra energy, no matter how small, relative to the existing nucleons, breaks the strong attraction down to a differential-frequency effect.

15

Protons do not decay, except inside dense enough black holes, where rings can be broken into chains and chains can reform with different meon spin combinations. Particles cannot usually change into one another because they have already-existing meon components, which cannot jump from one ring to another, except in extreme mass or charge fields. Although the mass and charge fields of meons are the most extreme possible, it is unlikely that any two sets of three meons, each set from different rings, can approach each other close enough to exchange the two central meons unless the ring energies are very high or the rings are pressed close enough together. Particle transitions, as currently understood, eg from neutrino to electron or up quark to down quark, are only the actions of the original particle splitting an already existing stack into component rings and that mixture reshuffling into a different stack plus an outgoing different particle.

16

All forces affect all rings. Even neutrinos experience gravitational and strong forces when they are stacked as part of a nucleon and both the electron and neutrino experience colour forces within the nucleon stack because they have three different ring phases for each type, even if they are indistinguishable.

17

Leptons have colour charge; it is just that their symmetry does not allow this to be observed. And colour charge is a description of phase differences across rings, which results in only certain relative phases to be stable within a stack.

18

Quarks and leptons have identical size electric charge units of 0, 1/3, 2/3 and 1 because they are composed of the same underlying meons that twist in a unitised amount.

19

There are three generations of quarks and leptons probably because the initial big bang inflation took different values along the three perpendicular dimensions. Although there does not appear to be a simple relationship between the masses of the leptons and quarks within each generation, the leptons represent the maximum inflation for each dimension and the quarks were probably limited in some specific way so that their size increases were stunted during inflation.

20

Fermions appear to be left handed with respect to the weak force, but this is only because most of the leptons ejected from nucleon stacks during collisions by external inbound leptons, which is what the weak force represents, are left handed in our positive matter volume of the universe. There are equal numbers of opposite spin leptons colliding with nucleon stacks, but they do not stably replace the existing stack components. Also, it is difficult to tell a neutrino from an anti-neutrino because some meon-combinatory isomers of the neutrino are identical to isomers of the anti-neutrino.

21

All forces have equal strength, but there are only two underlying forces at work, due to charge-like and gravity-like forces. The non-charge and non-gravity forces are due to interactions between either meons to meons within different rings, or rings and rings with orientation, phase and distance effects. They may appear like different forces, but they effectively combinations of only the underlying two. The reason gravity appears so weak compared to charge is because charge is related directly only to the Planck mass size of the meons, whilst gravity for a ring is also related to the physical size of the ring, which is determined by its frequency of rotation. A ring is a quantum of gravity.

22

There are few arbitrary parameters for rings. Only the fine structure constant and the sizes of the rings are arbitrary, but these could be said to be the sizes they are now because of the time elapsed since inflation, if they are not fixed quantities.

23

The electroweak mixing angle has no relevance since the weak force is actually a description of collision and replacement events of leptons within nucleon stacks, whose required minimum external energies are ring identity, relative orientation, phase and distance dependent, whilst electromagnetic interaction within the same stack has no external components.

24

Although neutrinos have zero mass when isolated from other rings (which is not actually achievable), they have mass induced by the presence of other rings. It is not their own mass, but is the mass of close rings transferred by matching sizes or frequencies of rings within a stack and that allows the neutrinos to be observed by their frequencies when within a stack. The stack can be an electron stack or a short neutrino-neutrino stack (a photon). It is by being in the ‘depression’ of space caused by other rings that the neutrinos have mass induced. Outside these depressions, they are not ‘deflected’, but with so many rings occupying space, they will have, on average, a small induced mass for each neutrino. This induced mass is a measure of the ratio of the total mass of the rings with mass to the number of neutrinos across the universe.

25

Despite neutrinos having zero mass, as required on symmetry grounds, they have induced mass because of the action of other rings with mass.

26

There is no need to search for symmetry breaking or a unified energy at which all forces have the same energy, because they already have the same size of action when the situation in which they are acting is understood. What will happen at an energy level equal to (alpha/(2 Pi))^0.5 Eo, is that the mass of any ring will equal the size of the electric charge and the measured strength of the two will be the same. However, the two possible values spin orientation will still produce energy differences across rings. Only at Eo, the Planck energy, will all the ring sizes be the same, and have the same action, and the relative orientation of two interacting rings become immaterial. Even the values of charge at Eo do not serve to differentiate between rings because the fraction of the frequency of the ring that shows its mass depends on the charge that the ring has, so the charge factors cancel at Eo and all rings have the same identities and are indistinguishable. This is also an unarguable case for treating 0/0 as being equal to 1.

27

There is no need for a Higgs field or boson because it is the size of the rings, and the fraction of charge that they possess as well as whether they are in a stack or not, that determines what is observed as their mass. It is the frequency of rotation of the ring that determines what mass will be measured.

28

There are no magnetic monopoles because all rings have two faces, which correspond to either a north or south pole respectively. Only in the totally isolated neutrino will there be neither pole overall, but even here there are actually six poles, but they cancel out overall, except when the ring is distorted to induce mass by the close presence rings with mass when there will be two observable poles.

29

A string, as used in the string theory, can be a zero mass loop of six meons. However, string theory discards the extra degrees of freedom available in the ring theory by ignoring the possible actions of twisting meons, which themselves may be considered as stationary waves of positive or negative flair and knack. But waves cannot spin, so the mathematics of string theory can possibly be used, with minor variations, to describe rings. In addition to the three dimensions of space, plus the dimension of time introduced by the rotational frequency of the rings, there are six degrees of freedom corresponding to the six meons that can twist in either of two directions with respect to their forward motion around the ring. This gives a total of ten dimensions to a ring. A meon itself has only five dimensions.

30

Rings are both particle and wave simultaneously. The properties that are observed depend on what property of the ring is being measured.

31

Relativity applies only to individual rings, in that each is a quantum of gravity and is its own individual clock whose frequency depends on what it is being measured relative to, its intrinsic size and the environment it is in at the time.

32

A zero mass particle is composed of the most dense black holes possible. So quantum mechanics, which is founded on meons and their interconnectedness and rings with their uncertainty, has black holes as its only component particles and so there can be no problem over the fundamental origins of black holes or over the laws of physics breaking down within black holes.

33

The universe is a casual structure. Nothing appears ‘out of nowhere’. Everything is already there, although hidden, and can be made to appear and be observed if given sufficient energy.

34

No supersymmetry is required, although supersymmetric particles can be formed by stacking rings.

35

Given the initial conditions of a unitised space and random fluctuations within that space, it is absolutely certain that an initial unmerging event will occur because, since there is no time in this underlying space, eventually a collection of fluctuations of sufficient size within a small enough volume will occur.

36

All geometric concepts work at all distances, down to the Planck length.

37

There are no alternative solutions to the framework of this theory of rings, although there may be mistakes in how it is currently interpreted. When the final version is arrived at, there will be no choice in any size, mode of action or order of events.

38

The forces can be ordered as to how they mainly work. Mass-like and charge-like forces act between meons within a ring. The twisting of the meons in a ring, and the rotation of those charges around the ring provide charge and magnetism respectively. The rotation of the meons around the ring provides the gravitational mass of the ring. The strong force is the action of meons in one nucleon directly with meons in another nucleon, mainly those rotating in the same plane and sense, so is independent of the charges of the rings. The colour force is between meons in the same stack and from ring to ring and depends on relative orientation of the rings and the relative phase of the symmetry of the rings. The size of the colour force and the strong force can be similar in certain circumstance, but because of the non-zero radius of the rings, the colour force can approach infinite size at certain ring-to-ring separations and can reverse sign of action across those separations. The weak force is stack replacement, usually of leptons by leptons. The standard model is a low-energy version of ring theory.

39

Mass, because it arises from the rotational rate of the rings, has a different symmetry to charge.

40

There are no force carriers. The particles thought to carry forces are simply rings or stacks that inhabit the environment under observation. So photons stack with electrons and are in balance, ejected versus captured by the electron stack, until ejected by some sharp change in the environment. The photons emitted are ejected as the result of the change and do not represent the source of the forces in action. Similarly for pions in the nucleus, gluons in the nucleon stack and W and Z bosons in stack transitions.

41

Quark confinement is due to the symmetry required of the quark stack to stay stable. Each quark has isomers of the positional order of its six constituent meons that are more symmetric than other isomers. The most symmetric isomers are the ones that appear in the nucleon stack and other stacks. The less symmetric isomers are more difficult to retain within stacks and were probably preferentially attracted into black holes as they formed. This is because the isomers within stacks have the least energetic configurations, and the most energetic particles, unsuited for their environment, will be preferentially absorbed into a system that can hide that extra energy most efficiently. So black holes take in less symmetric quarks and eject completely symmetric leptons by breaking and reforming rings. The nucleon stacks are composed of rings which, together with each quark in its most symmetric isomer form and having the correct relative phase difference between quarks, are overall stable and balance as they rotate locked into relative positions and phases. For a quark to change colour requires it to interact with other rings, which in turn change phase by the identical amount.

42

The ring framework, with neutrinos and electron rings within the nucleon stack, enables the magnetic moments of the nucleons to be calculated in line with experimental observations. This includes the induced mass of the stack neutrinos causing the neutrinos to have a magnetic moment.

43

Dark matter is the neutrinos, with their minimal induced masses, asymmetric up and down quark not yet sieved by black holes, photons, zerons, neutral proton-anti-proton cored atoms and all rings not having 6 meons.

44

Dark energy is possibly an illusion caused by the expansion of the universe not being treated in the correct context. Universal viscosity acts on all quarks and, through interactions with zerons, enables the energy lost by photons in travel to be redistributed in part to rings with mass to keep them the same rest-mass size. So the universe is a lot smaller than currently accepted. This means that measurements of any increase in the rate of expansion must be tempered by interpretation using a smaller physical size of universe.

45

Anti-matter is not missing, just hidden. In the same way that our part of the universe is dominated by matter particles, there will be other volumes dominated by anti-matter particles. Like masses attract, so anti-proton based neutral atoms will gravitationally attract each other. Volumes of matter surrounded or bounded by anti-matter will not have large areas of annihilation, but of formation of neutral proton-anti-proton atoms that constitute some of the sources of dark matter. Where anti-matter surrounds the matter volume, the dark matter will form a halo around the matter volume.

46

Vacuum energy calculations are based on finding ½ hw of energy at all frequencies across any volume of space. The actual particles that make up this background are zerons, which are particle and anti-particle whose charge and spin sum to zero. Their masses sum to twice the mass of each (hw in total), but with no spin to use to manipulate the zerons, their frequencies cannot be measured and so appear to be zero (except when viewed in bulk as a source of dark matter). Only by providing enough energy to split these apart, called ‘pair creation’, but really zeron splitting, can the existence of the two component rings be observed, and the conclusion drawn that each point in space has a large vacuum energy. But it cannot be measured directly.

47

Charge Parity symmetry breaking is caused by universal friction acting on all meons, so that there is no actual reversal of time possible, even though theoretically it should be possible.

48

Most stack events can be understood as simple collisions. An example would be a neutrino impacting with an electron/positron zeron close to a proton stack, resulting in the electron and neutrino attaching to the stack and the positron being ejected. This is not an up, down, up quark proton interacting with an incoming neutrino and changing into a down, up, down quark and an ejected positron.

49

Photons are most likely to be emitted in pairs because neutrino/anti-neutrinos pairs form the ends of electron stacks. So when electrons are forced to emit photons, the most likely event is that both ends of the electron stack are subject to the same forces and the same numbers of rings are ejected from each end of the stack. Each end ring in a spin ½ stack will be rotating in the same sense, and neutrino/anti-neutrino are almost interchangeable in identity.

50

Electrons do not necessarily orbit in the planetary sense in stationary states, but are self-entangled and jump from point to point within all allowable probability envelopes.

51

Muon decay is where a muon passes its extra frequency to an electron-neutrino-based photon which splits into electron neutrino/anti-neutrino with the former taking the extra frequency to become a muon neutrino. The muon loses frequency to become an electron. Nothing is conjured out of thin air; the particles already existed and took part in the event because they had the appropriate energy/orientation/position.

**How to do Quantum Mechanics**

The following is an explanation of an underlying mechanism that can explain how quantum mechanics works.

Background

There are many different interpretations of, or approaches to, Quantum Mechanics (QM). The mainstream one is the Copenhagen variant that posits indeterminism, Bohr’s correspondence priciple, Born’s statistical interpretation of the wave function and Bohr’s complementarity interpretation. The de Broglie-Bohm theory (BB) is a hidden variables interpretation of quantum mechanics, with a pilot-wave and hidden variables. More interpretations will be examined here, but all interpretations contain the inherent concept of non-locality and try to treat the measurement problem in different ways.

This section sets out to show that each of the different approaches or interpretations, other than the Many Worlds interpretation, can be broadly reconciled to each other by subtly redefining certain aspects of each, although such redefinitions do have secondary effects on the lower order predictions of those interpretations, such as making the redefined BB theory non-deterministic even before considering interaction with the measuring apparatus. The result is a single novel interpretation of QM that can provide a basis for understanding what QM actually is, and how the phenomena of FQHE, entanglement, electron shells and electrinos can be different manifestations of the same underlying physical reality in action.

We start with the underlying outline of what will be called the ‘Skipping’ hypothesis.

A The presumption is that all the particles we call fundamental are actually real and exist.

B The particles also possess real objective properties of spin, charge, mass and energy, the latter, for example, in the form of positional or motional energy relative to some other real particle (but what the value of each such energy separately is not definable except after measurement), regardless of whether a measurement has been made or not.

C These particles can exist in two space/times simultaneously – one of which is our own ‘normal’ space/time and the other is the space of the particle itself, the volume or volumes that it is allowed by its relative energy to occupy, where there is no time and no distance – called ‘no-time space’. Where more than one particle shares the same no-time space, they are entangled.

D Each particle, when possessing specific levels of a property with relation to another particle, for example an electron being in a specific orbital around an atom, occupies all of the orbital as no-time space, the space effectively composed of a number of allowable particle positions, each of which is part of the no-time space available to the particle to occupy, the whole orbital shell volume called ‘allowable space’.

E A perturbation of sufficient size which changes, for example, the energy of the orbital so that the particle can no longer remain within the orbital makes the allowable space collapse down to the physical extent of the particle - from the whole orbital down to its own physical extent which is the only volume that it can now occupy at that energy (when done deliberately a ‘measurement’) and at a position and velocity product corresponding to the particle’s energy.

F The QM motion of a particle, for example an electron within its orbital, is not proper motion in normal space-time.

G The electron skips from point to point within the orbital, taking no time to change position, because in allowable space there is no time or distance. The components that make up the electron and underlying space are identical. The meons that form the electron at the start of a skip are not the same ones that form the electron at the end of the skip. A ‘lone’ meon in the electron will have replaced a similar meon in a barrier line made of ZMBHs, and that replacement zipped along the corridor until the end of the line where a ‘lone’ meon emerges along with the others in the electron. The electron properties are the same, but the meons different. The barrier line is the same as a no-time space corridor that connects two apparently separate positions in normal space, so that two entangled rings are always in contact with each other if they are at the two ends of the line.

H The energy that the electron possesses is precisely the amount that allows it to remain in that orbital, and that orbital shape represents the volume of normal space in which an electron of that energy can be found. In total for the electron, this energy is always zero because the KE+SKE=0, the mass potential equals the spin potential energy and the mass and spin energies are equal and opposite. So the total energy of the electron in a quantum orbital is zero at all times.

I The orbital affects where the electron can be but the electron does not affect the extent of the orbital.

J The skipping from point to point is completely random.

K The properties of the electron at any specific point within allowable space represent the fraction of normal time spent at that point relative to the total time spent in the orbital. The sum of those properties across the whole orbital represents the total properties of the particle.

L Some of these properties, such as charge and mass, can be observed in total without needing to know exactly where in the orbital the electron is situated. Other properties, such as position within the orbital, require measurement.

M When a measurement is made, the position of the particle is instantaneously fixed within the orbital at whichever point it occupies at that moment, with velocity appropriate for the particle’s energy (although these cannot be observed separately).

M It is the measurement of the orbital that happens, not the particle.

N The orbital and particle are separate entities, even in the case of a photon, where its wavefunction is the equivalent of the electron orbital. So the position of the electron is undetermined within the orbital until a measurement is made, at which time it stops skipping from point to point.

O The motion of wavefunctions and orbitals, particles not in orbitals, or composite particles which contain orbitals but are themselves not in orbitals or whose wavefunction is moving, are subject to Lorentz invariance and move subject to limited general relativity.

Using just these foundations, it is possible to construct a ‘how it happens’ theory on the observations of quantum mechanics. The dividing line between QM and relativity can be defined by looking at the relative energies of each system, which are either permanent ZTESs or non-ZTESs respectively.

Each QM aspect can now be subject to interpretation using the skipping hypothesis and compared with the main interpretations of QM. The following is written as if the skipping interpretation is definitely the case, rather than in the conditional tense, for which apologies are made in advance.

It can be seen that skipping is non-local because the motion from point to point within the allowable space happens without proper motion of the meons that compose the electron, which is the foundation hypothesis, parts F and G. As will be shown later, under “Proof” below, this aspect should allow confirmation of the skipping interpretation to be made experimentally. All the QM interpretations are non-local.

The electrons must have well defined energies in orbitals in order for there to be specific volumes for them to skip between. The addition/removal of energy to/from electrons allows the electrons to skip from one orbital to another – without proper motion between orbitals, and only specific energy photons enable skipping to other allowable orbitals. All the QM interpretations contain quantum orbitals. The balance of mass and spin energy, kinetic and spin kinetic energies and mass and spin potential energies means that the energy of an electron in a quantum orbital is always zero. However, it is the size of the balloon on each side of the balanced kinetic energies that changes between different orbitals.

The nature of random skipping, hypothesis part J, does not allow prediction of when a transition between orbitals will happen, nor how. All QM interpretations contain randomness.

The only photons that enable transitions between orbitals are those with the correct energy to allow the electron to begin and end in an orbital. All QM interpretations contain transition gaps. The added photon energy is balanced by the change in potential energy, and the photon when captured by an electron, has a similar balance of mass and spin energies to total zero.

De Broglie-Bohm, Many Worlds and Modal interpretations of QM deny the projection postulate, that upon measurement of a physical system, its state will collapse. Skipping differentiates between the collapse of the allowable space that a particle can occupy and the state of that particle. There is not one state that a system as a whole possesses which can collapse. A system is made of two parts – the allowable space (for example, an orbital or a wave function depending on the system) and the real particle. The real particle occupies all parts of the allowable space, but skipping from position to position. When the allowable space is perturbed, the particle ‘drops out’ where it happens to be at that instant in normal space because the allowable space is no longer allowable to the particle. It will then occupy a specific point within the volume of the old allowable space, in normal space, but the old allowable space is no longer there for it to skip about. If there are other allowable spaces for it to skip between, with the energy that it then possesses, it will do so. Because the particle itself has not changed energy, the energy it will be measured to have will be an allowed eigenstate of the whole system, just as there were the allowable spaces – and as Dirac postulated. So these no-projection interpretations are correct if the state to which they refer is the real particle, but there is definitely a collapse of part of the system.

The addition of non-linear and stochastic terms to the normal dynamical formulation of QM to take account of the two stages of before and after measurement results in theories of collapse, of which the best known is due to Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber (GRW). Skipping probably requires a similar treatment, although the reason is different. The collapse of the allowable space is a separate process to the random skipping motion of the particle, although the maximum extent of the position of the particle is defined by that allowable space. However, the motion of the particle, skipping around the allowable space, does not lend itself to other than probabilistic interpretation of position. The defining line between an event causing collapse and not-causing collapse is inherent in all QM interpretations involving some form of collapse. Skipping also faces that problem.

The von Neumann-Dirac interpretation requires that a system evolves continuously with linear deterministic dynamics and on measurement instantaneously either has or has not got the property being measured. The latter aspect depends on when and where the measurement is being made within the orbital relative to where the particle is at the moment skipping stops as a result of that measurement. If the orbital is collapsed and the particle is at a point away from the measurement point or in a state that has a zero value for that measurement property, then the measurement will be close to zero (and may not be sufficiently large to be measurable by the measurement apparatus) or zero for that property. Where the measurement is coincident with or close enough to the particle’s position on orbital collapse, then the measurement will have a value. The particle always has its properties, it is only a case of whether they are observed and the value of that observation when a measurement is made. However, the evolution of the system is not continuous, because the particle randomly skips within the allowable space, when considering the position of the particle. What is continuous is the evolution, motion or movement of the whole allowable space. A complete waveform in motion with a photon is continuous and linear in its motion. So provided the definition of the system that needs to be continuous is not identically the same as the instantaneous-value system, the von Neumann-Dirac interpretation is correct.

The Everett proposal, that there is no collapse and no instantaneous-measurement, leads to the Many Worlds interpretation. Skipping can say nothing about the existence of many worlds, but does requires instantaneous-value measurements.

The de Broglie-Bohm interpretation (BB) is a pilot wave model. It is closest to skipping of all the QM interpretations. However, the BB interpretation is a hidden variables interpretation, which skipping is not. Skipping has no guiding equation specifying the position of a particle ‘within’ an orbital or its wave function.

Skipping says that the particle occupies all points within its orbital or wave function over a sufficient time period, randomly skipping between points. There is no precise point that the particle can be identified as having until the skipping stops on measurement. For a photon emitted from a source, the position of the photon is at some random point on the shell representing its distance travelled since emission in all directions. There is no identifiable path that the photon takes from source to observation point. It is a random walk around an expanding shell. The nature of the allowable space that this represents, as no-time space, means that the instant before measurement by an observer, the photon could have been occupying a point a diameter away in the opposite direction from the observer away from the source. The photon moves in its allowable no-time space that is represented by a shell of normal space/time until the shell is observed, when the photon becomes constrained in normal space/time at its last occupied point on the shell. It is the expansion/motion of the shell that is influenced by other masses. If the BB interpretation used the allowable space shell, with its random particle positions, rather than a pilot wave, then it would be correct.

Skipping is non-deterministic, because of the randomness of the skipping of particles. Unless skipping is non-random (which we would never be able to measure because nothing is measurable until after skipping stops), there can be no determinism with our fundamental particles within a QM system. Only when at the level of particles moving outside orbitals or wave functions, will there be a measure of determinism. All QM interpretations are non-determistic, except BB before mixing with the measuring apparatus.

The BB interpretation suggests that by invoking randomness in the measuring apparatus, the BB interpretation can be deterministic, but the result non-deterministic. Such an argument can never define the limits of the measurement, except to include the whole universe as part of the system being measured. The limits on measurement depend on the size of the energy differential between an allowable space, the particle occupying that space and the energy used in the measurement.

The randomness inherent in skipping gives rise to probability distributions of property values over the allowable space, as do all QM interpretations.

Decoherence concerns how a system changes from being a QM system to being a classical one through spontaneous interaction between the system and the environment. This is related to how much of an interaction is enough to be a measurement, either deliberately or accidentally, which disturbs the QM system. This is again a question of relative energies, and is the difference between a ZTES and a non-ZTES system.

Underlying it is the scale of relationship between the kinetic energy and spin kinetic energy of a body. For a single ring, KE+SKE=0, mass energy and spin energy are equal and opposite and the mass potential and spin potentials are equal and opposite so that the single ring has total energy of zero in a stable orbital. This is a quantum system. As the body gains more rings, with differing spins and orientations, the kinetic energy exceeds the spin kinetic energy and the body has a net kinetic energy, so it is only a ZTES over a complete orbit.

In a Stern-Gerlach experiment the allowable space, here a discrete wave packet, of a spinor-valued particle directed towards the magnet splits into separate volumes as it goes through the apparatus and the particle continues skipping between the separated volumes until a measurement is made.

*Value Definiteness (VD)*

The Korchen-Specker (KS) theorem provides powerful arguments against a hidden variables (HV) interpretation of QM. Skipping is not a hidden variables theory, but it is important to show that it is possible to have value definiteness, since this is one of the HV premises, and a variation on VD underlies skipping. The usual definition for VD is that all observables defined for a QM system have definite values at all times. The difference in skipping is that it is only the basic properties of the particles that have definite values. The basic properties are spin, charge, mass and positional and motional energy relative to another particle. The positional and motional energies are such that the particle can occupy certain allowable spaces, but what the value of each energy is separately is not definable except after measurement, when the skipping stops and specific values of position and motion are then set. So if the definition in VD is altered to account only for those basic particle properties, then VD does not need to imply any hidden variables.

*Noncontextuality (NC)*

This is closely linked to VD, and says that if a QM system possesses a property, then it does so independently of any measurement context. Once more, defining the QM system only to be the basic particle properties, NC can be correct. The particle in its allowable space has an independent reality from its being measured, but because it is skipping, the actual value or split of these over that space is not defined and cannot be known and only probabilities can be recovered. At each point, which the particle occupies in normal space/time for a fractional time period as it randomly skips within no-time space, it has a definite charge, spin, mass and positional/motional energy. The energy is the same everywhere, as are the charge, mass and spin (for instance in an orbital) and the sum of the products of these and fractional times over all positions within the allowable spaces is the total value of these properties for the particle. So the KS theorem is correct except when considering the QM system as real particles skipping within allowed no-time space. And the KS theorem does not forbid HV theories with that redefinition of QM systems.

All QM interpretations, being non-local, are incompatible with special relativity and Lorentz invariance. What skipping implies is that the two space/times that a particle inhabits within a QM system should be considered differently. When skipping stops, the allowable no-time spaces collapse to the physical size of the particle. This effect is instantaneous and non-local. The no-time spaces and their collapse are QM systems. After collapse the ‘naked’ particle inhabits normal space/time and is subject to normal constraints on motion from place to place. So it is possible to imagine a hierarchy of systems and subsystems where the motions of particles within each system depend on their relationships with each of the two space/times. A molecule accelerated to close to light speed is unlikely itself be in a quantum relationship with another larger system, but the electrons in orbitals within the molecule’s constituent atoms will be skipping amongst no-time spaces in quantum relationship with those atoms. The line between QM and special/general relativity is the ownership or otherwise of any total energy of position and motion (even rest mass energy is equal and opposite to spin energy for a single ring).

The principle that values in domains of large quantum numbers should approximate classical results has guided all QM interpretations. As will be shown below, FQHE may be another area, in addition to electrinos, where quantum values extend into a physical size large enough to be accessed in a classical fashion and skipping provides a novel interpretation of the fractional nature of the phenomenon.

The interpretation of objects as both waves or particles, depending on how they are measured is a foundation of all QM interpretations. What skipping implies is that, in the QM domain, the two aspects are separate but linked. The wave function of a particle or the orbital it occupies is the allowed space that it can occupy. The particle occupies all the outer shell of the wave function or volume of the orbital, randomly skipping within the allowable space. When the orbital or wave function is perturbed sufficiently, the particle stops skipping and the particle is either observed (measurement close enough) or not. When no measurement is made, the particle continues skipping and the wave function travels along all allowable paths, causing interference and other wave-like phenomena, or the orbital remains occupied by the particle with undefined properties. The orbital or wave function define where the particle can exist, and develop smoothly until measurement. The particle does not affect the orbital, but cannot be measured whilst the orbital exists.

A superposition is usually considered to be a mixture of all the possible states of a particle in a system. A particle such as a skipping electron can be considered mathematically to be in a superposition of all the different positions within an orbital that are allowable, as an average over time. But there is no mixture of positions and no superposition – only the particle randomly skipping, whose average position and properties look like a superposition. At each position it has definite values for a fractional time, but over a sufficient period these sum to the total value of the properties of the electron. The time-averaged position of the where the effect of a property such as the charge of a particle on another particle is located will be at the centre of a symmetric orbital, over sufficient time.

The separation of two entangled particles, usually photon split into electron and positron, too far apart to allow signalling, seems to allow simultaneous contradictory measurements. The paradox is solved by using skipping. The photon continues to be a no-time space, even when split into two separate parts at large separation. The electron is randomly skipping between the two spaces, with the positron doing the reverse simultaneously. So no two measurements made on both spaces can ever be made ‘simultaneously’ to find one space in a superposition of electron and positron and the other space with a definite particle present. The ‘superposition’ is just the average of the random skipping of the two particles, which are always one in one space and the other in the other space. There is no superposition of both simultaneously in both places and so no paradox. But until a measurement is made, any macroscopic measuring apparatus cannot register the difference between a superposition (partly both in both, but not the case anyway) and a random average skipping (always one in each, swapping continually but randomly). The break here comes when the randomness decays to meet the minimum timescale over which the apparatus can register a result of one or other being present, either wholly for a time or large enough trigger on a biased average. Only on measurement or randomness reduction (which may be a factor leading to the equivalent of an automatic measurement) will a result be obtained. As for Schrodinger’s poor cat, it is either dead or it is alive, but not both, for there is no superposition.

Bell’s theorem that no physical theory of local hidden variables can ever reproduce all of the predictions of QM, and other similar inequality formulations, are correct in that they require QM to be non-local. In the same way that superposition is a valid average interpretation of the skipping of entangled particles over a given time period, the act of skipping in no-time space might appear to be introducing hidden variables, except that these well defined variables at random positions within the allowable space do not give rise to measurable properties except after the skipping stops. Thus no information can be obtained on any variables during skipping except the basic properties of charge and mass. So although skipping may at first appear to be a hidden variables interpretation, it is not, and so skipping is in agreement with Bell’s theorem.

It is also important to note that skipping does not imply that, for example between an entangled pair, information is passed non-locally between the pair on each other’s states. The actual particles skip around the available spaces, here two separated spaces, so that they are never exchanging information, only places randomly and non-locally.

The motion of entangled particles may be non-local in normal space/time, but they are local in their own no-time space. For them, there is no time taken to pass between the spaces because the spaces themselves are all in contact whilst the allowable spaces exist. These spaces only exist between the entangled particles. Other entangled pairs have their own allowable spaces. As will be shown below for FQHE, where allowable spaces exist, particles can be added or subtracted from the entangled group of particles that occupy those allowable spaces. Addition/subtraction causes the collapse of the initial no-time space, to be replaced by a new no-time space with the new group of CAs within the garden (see below).

The principles which have been broken within a QM system to get to the explanation of QM using skipping are:

1 The principle of time and space within a QM system– although physical objects exist in space and time, they also exist in no-time space under certain conditions. When in the latter they are not localizable or countable and evolution of the system does not take place in normal space and time. Outside a QM system, the principle still stands.

2 The principle of determination within a QM system – It is not the case that every later state of a system is uniquely determined by any earlier state. Outside a QM system, the principle still stands.

3 The principle of continuity within a QM system – It is not the case that all processes exhibiting a difference between initial and final state have to go through every intervening state. Outside a QM system, the principle still stands.

It may be that the necessary event for a measurement is an interaction with an ‘other’ particle, for example, that particle relative to which an orbital exists. So an atom with one electron in an orbital would change the energy of the orbital – which represents the allowable spaces for the electron – if it were perturbed sufficiently. The size of ‘sufficient’ has still not been pinned down, but what might cause the electron to drop out has been better defined, since the electron energy remains unchanged as the orbital energy changes. At the atomic level, energy perturbations are not far different to classical interaction levels and it may be that the ‘sufficient’ interaction necessary to collapse a quantum system is a classic interaction. This would mean that no quantum system-to-quantum system interactions would result in collapse. Collapse would only happen on a classic interaction level. Here a ‘classical’ interaction level means changing energy levels by an amount that does not result in another allowable quantum energy level of the orbital.

The position of any electron within an orbital around an atom cannot be specified precisely and the electron does not travel in a defined orbit. The only certain aspect is that the electron is somewhere within the allowable orbital volume.

Fractional charges are involved in the transfer of current. Those fractions occur in specific series. The current theory is one of Composite Fermions, being composites of electrons (or holes) and either flux lines or vortices at hierarchies of Landau levels. For example, two related members of a series are 4/11 and 7/13.

Entanglement is best observed when a photon is split and the component electron and positron removed from each other to a separation which allows subsequent measurement of, for example, relative identity and spin angles to be made fast enough to confirm a non-local relationship.

Current interpretations of this effect lean heavily on ‘mixed’ states, where the particle being measured is a superposition of both the electron and positron and is not defined until measured.

These are defined as fractions of an electron that has been split within bubbles, and behave as fractional electrons.

Each of the above four phenomena can be seen as a different view of the same underlying skipping in action as follows:

The initial bubble, containing one electron, is split into smaller bubbles. Each smaller bubble represents a probability that the electron occupies it and is part of the allowable space, split into separate parts. The mass and charge properties observable of the electron will be proportional to the size of the bubble. If there are two equal bubbles, each bubble will contain the electron for half the time, having on average half the electron charge and mass. Where there are many small bubbles, one possible method of showing whether this interpretation is true is to destroy one of the smaller bubbles. Then the allowable space will have been destroyed and the electron will only be able to exist within the bubble that it happened to occupy at that instant. This will cause that bubble to inflate back to the size of the initial bubble, because the size of a bubble is related to how long the electron spends inside the bubble (rather than what fractional part of the electron is there all the time). The electron will have become trapped in that specific smaller bubble, causing it to inflate. This is different to the current interpretation of electrinos that involves fractional electrons.

The novel interpretation suggested by skipping is that each electron skips amongst the allowable orbits around the flux lines contained within a specified area (a “garden”, see ‘A Constant Garden’ below). If the garden contains, for example, two electrons and seven flux lines, each electrons spends one-seventh of its time around each flux line and each composite particle, a Composite Anyon (CA), within that garden is made of one flux line and an average of two-sevenths of an electron. The garden contains seven CAs, each an entanglement of one flux line and two-sevenths electrons on average. Adding or subtracting electrons or flux lines changes the identity of the composite particles by collapse and reformation of no-time space within the garden. This interpretation can be shown to be likely because each composite particle will have a fractional value of all the electron properties except magnetic moment. The magnetic moment of all these fractional CAs will always be the same as that of the electron, because the charge and mass fractions will always cancel equally in the magnetic moment formula and actual action.

This phenomena has been used earlier as part of the explanation of skipping, so will only be covered briefly here. Each electron in an atomic orbital is assumed to skip about all the allowable parts of the orbital, effectively those volumes with the same energy. Each electron orbital around an atom represents the probability of finding the electron there. Higher orbitals have complex probability distributions. The volumes of the lobes of complex orbitals, as a fraction of the total volumes of each orbital, represent how much time an electron will spend in that lobe rather than the other lobes, on average. This lobe fraction will also be the fraction of the electron properties that will be observed within that lobe, on average. This can be confirmed by an experiment to detach a lobe from an atom so that there is no contiguous probability distribution between that lobe and the rest of the orbital. The observed properties of the electrons in the lobe should be precisely proportional to the lobe volume fraction.

The electron and positron split out from a photon and separated are randomly swapping places, each contained within a half of their allowable space (similar to but not the same as the bubble splitting of electrinos). At any instant the electron is in one volume of the allowable space and the positron in the other, but on average they each spend half their time in each. So the superposition interpretation is appropriate, even if for the wrong reason. Only once a measurement is made, that is that the energy of the allowable volume of one particle is changed sufficiently, does one particle become stuck in one volume. The entangled state is broken. The other particle is then forced to remain where it is at that instant. Effectively the volume surrounding the photon is split apart into two volumes of no-time space that remain that way until the energy of either is changed and the electron and positron are stranded in normal space-time. Being no-time space, the skipping will be instantaneous regardless of normal space-time distance between separated volumes. This interpretation is consistent with currently accepted superposition, but explains why superposition exists.

The non-locality of QM is explained by skipping, although skipping does not explain why a particle skips. The action of skipping hints at a deeper level underlying skipping, providing the why as well as the how.

Effectively an electron skipping in an orbital is self-entangled, in that it is switching positions with itself, rather than another particle, which is the case in a split photon. In order to be self-entangled, there must be some underlying structure to the particle. However, it is not as simple as envisaged in the description of electrinos. If electrons could be split into smaller, self similar, pieces then since FQHE has larger strength magnetic fields than those electric fields used in the electrino experiments then the resultant fractions ought to be due to fractionation of the electrons. But the fractional series found experimentally shows that the electron would have to be able to split into thirds, fifths, sevenths, elevenths, thirteenths, seventeenths etc. This series of prime denominators implies that the electron must fractionate into an infinite number of smaller self-similar pieces. This would surely have shown up in earlier experiments and such an interpretation represents just another level of ‘smaller’ electrons. The underlying nature of the current fundamental particles, the leptons and quarks, will be the subject of the third paper in this series of five.

Each of the above four phenomena has its own indicator of how the truth may be discerned. However, the overarching feature of each is precision. If the fractions in bubbles, FQHE and lobes of electron orbitals are absolutely precise fractions such as ½, 1/3 etc, or the properties of particles are absolutely precisely proportional to the volumes of those bubbles or orbitals, then there can be no motion of particles between separated allowable spaces. Such motion would introduce some time spent outside those allowable volumes, smearing out the properties across larger volumes and leading to near-but-not-exact fractional properties for the electrons in those volumes.

Without motion outside allowable volumes, there must be skipping.

Consider the standard Hall Effect formula for the action of a magnetic field on a current carrying sample

M Ø_{o}
= BA, (1)

with Ø_{o} = hc/e, B the external field, A the area
of the sample and M the degeneracy of the Landau level usually, but here termed
the number of flux lines present in the sample.

The magnetic field B can be shown to be inversely
proportional to the fractions *v *(usually the filling factor, but here
the fractional state), with

C = Ø_{o} /( B *v* ) (2)

C a sample-dependent constant representing the effective
area (not the actual area) of a part of the total area of the sample, called a
‘garden’. This formula applies equally to the whole sample and to each
individual garden and says that the fractional state *v* is inversely
proportional to the field B, linked through a constant which identifies an area
specific to the sample.

The Composite Fermions (CFs) of FQHE are instead interpreted
in the skipping hypothesis to be entangled states of electrons and flux lines,
whose values of charge, mass and spin are proportional to *v*, and are
thus better described as CAs.

The amount of time an electron spends in any one orbital path around a flux line relative to the complete set of paths available to that electron (the latter the ‘garden’ mentioned above and generally the allowable space for each electron) represents the fraction of each electron’s charge and mass that will be observed in each CA within that garden. The orbital path is not the CA, the CA is the time averaged observable of the combination of how many electrons and orbital paths are present in the garden.

So a garden with 2 electrons and 5 orbital paths would be otherwise described as 5 CAs each with 2/5 charge, mass and spin, that is an anyon with fractional statistics. The whole area A of a sample will be made up of many identical gardens. A garden represents the quantum entanglement of the electrons and the flux lines, which the electrons orbit around. The requirement of non-fractional spin overall for a garden is probably what keeps the garden together.

Any change in fraction is accommodated by a change across
the whole garden to all CAs, although local impurities may allow localised
areas with slightly different CA states and the speed of change from one
fraction to the next may be shown by the steepness of B against R_{Hxx}
around each fraction.

Changing the state of the CAs involves either increasing/reducing the magnetic field, which increases/reduces the number of flux lines and thus the number of orbital paths available for the existing number of electrons to hop around, or increasing/reducing the number of electrons hopping around the orbital paths, each, each change of CA identity involving no-time space collapse and reformation.

A CA state with more electrons than orbital paths, which would usually be subject to the Pauli exclusion principle, is allowed because the electrons are skipping about, actually spread over all the orbital paths in the garden, and the CAs themselves are fractional anyons rather than fermions. The state of any CA within the garden is the average of the electron population number over the orbital path number for that garden. Over any reasonable timescale, these will trend towards the same state, although initially on a change of state there will be differences across the garden.

In addition to the fractional features of charge and mass that are observable will be those of magnetic moment and spin. For any garden, the total properties will be the sum of the number of electrons present, regardless of how many orbital paths are available. The magnetic moment of all CAs is

u = qh/2m_{CA} = *v*e h /(2 *v*m_{e})
= eh/2m_{e } = u_{e}, (3)

the magnetic moment of the electron, where m_{e} is
the mass of the electron, m_{CA} the mass of the CA (m_{CA} = *v*
m_{e}), e the electronic charge, q the CA charge (q = *v* e) and h
Planck’s constant.

The evidence is already in many existing papers. It is
possible to estimate the garden size C by using, for example, one paper to
provide approximate numbers, arriving at a garden area in that sample of
approximately 4 x 10^{-16} m^{2} leading to an effective area
of 6.2 x10^{-8} m^{2} since the constant Ø_{o} /C
obtained in that paper is 9.2W m^{-2}. Other papers arrive at different
constants Ø_{o} /C as follows 4.14 W m^{-2}, 5.8 W m^{-2}
(44), 5.3 W m^{-2}, and 4.13 W m^{-2}. The value of C for
different samples can be simply calculated from the relevant graphs of B
against R_{Hxx} as the points of minimum B multiplied by the fraction
at that point. So for example, in the Pan et al. paper, the estimate of the 2/5
fraction read off the graph is B= 10.3T, giving Ø_{o} /C = 4.12 W m^{-2},
or the 2/7 fraction at B=14.5T gives Ø_{o} /C=4.14 W m^{-2}.
These Ø_{o} /C values are reasonably consistent across each graph for
all fractions.

**Formulae**

The adjusted Planck units **h**,** G**, **M** and
**c** are used with their normal meanings, adjusted as explained to
standardise across all MKS units, but Q is the adjusted Planck charge and q the
electrostatic charge.

The maths noted here is just a short summary, and teh papers should be viewed for the full derivations and explanation. g means the relativistic factorg=(1-vv)^-0.5.

The knack of a meon is –Q in a positive meon and +Q in a negative meon.

and Ering = (g-1)Mo cc = (g-1)h Wo =:= ½ h w = ½ M v v = m c c

The properties of velocity, time, distance, energy, force, magnetism, current, volume, viscosity etc can all be represented as powers of mass or inverse charge. The relationships form the laws of physics and are constants when the properties sum to zero in powers of mass.

**h** = m^{0 } m = m1 v = m2 r
= m-3 E = m5

F = m6 t = m-5 V = m-9 visc = m9 resistance = m2

Permeability = m0 current = m4 volume = m-9

Visc vol = m9 m-9 = m0 = constant

For an adjusted Planck size meon, interacting over half its surface area to a depth of Rs at each point, this constant is equal to h.

The balance of energies in a rotating system is given by

**G**mm/r = m vv = qq**cc**/r

The energy of a photon is given by

Eg = 2 (g-1)h Wo =:= **h** w = **h**
w

But this is equal and opposite to its spin energy, so all that remains is the frequency of rotation of the two rings

All energies should be included by use of a product relationship, rather than summing. This is equivalent in simple terms for two energies Vx and Vy to

V = (Vx + Vy)/(1 + VxVy)

For more energies, the formula is

Etot = (Product (1+Ex) – Product(1-Ex)/(Product (1+Ex) + Product (1-Ex)) for all Ex present

All forces and energies as measured from a ring contain in the denominator the distances

L = D – R

where L is the effective distance from the ring, D the distance from the centre of the ring to the centre of the other object and R is the ring radius. So the action of two masses should be written as

E = M1 M2 /(D-R)^2

No force carrier particles

Me Re Re = Mo Rs Rs, gives the size of the electron ring (and the electron neutrino ring) as 9.9137 x 10 –24 m