Ring Theory in a Nutshell

Assume the universe is composed only of near-Planck unit-sized volumes of nothing; but that each unit volume is separable into preon particle and anti-particle of equal and opposite Planck charges and Planck masses. Assume that like charges repel, unlike attract and that like masses attract and unlike chase to maintain separation and energy. Assume that as unit volumes are separated out, each preon starts spinning at the same rate because it takes the same amount of energy each time to split the unit volume and that each preon will be dominated by the fields of its nearest opposite particle..

Chasing will cause the formation of chains of alternating particle and anti-particle, each preon chasing the one in front and chased by the one behind. Chains will eventually form loops as heads catch tails. A loop of six is the strongest configuration, but loops of four will be formed more often and are dark matter to our normal 6-loop matter. Time starts when loops form and a loop of six is called a ring. Formation of rings at the near-Planck energy/Planck radius followed by physical interaction between rings could have expanded the rings to their present sizes very quickly, called inflation, without external motion of those rings. If the orientation of the spinning axis of each preon is aligned with the chasing preon, there are only eight different electrostatic charge combinations possible for a ring of six preons when the preon spinning energy has a value of ± 1/6 qc3. The eight combinations represent the quarks and leptons. The rotational energy of the rings is currently called ‘spin ½ ‘ and is shown by the angular momentum h of each preon multiplied by the excess relativistic factor ½ , the ring frequency currently being ignored. The same internal energy is the ‘mass’ of the ring, being h multiplied by the frequency at which the ring rotates, less the rest mass energy, again giving ½ w. For each preon h = Mo v r inside the ring and the ring has energy (gx –1) Mo c2 = (gx –1) h wo »  ½ Mo vx2 = ½ h wx » mr c2. The constant ½ hq/(2p) is the same for all charged rings, due to charge and mass separately and shows that the muon and tau leptons are simply larger mass, smaller ring radius, electrons. The same is the case for families or ‘flavours’ of all rings. The generation of magnetic moment due to both charge and mass enables a simple framework for the respective masses and magnetic moments of the proton and neutron. The positioning of ± 1/6 q charges within the rings leads to symmetries. All charged leptons and some neutrinos are symmetric or ‘colourless’. All other rings are asymmetric, mostly with 3 and 2 fold asymmetries ie have ‘colour’. Stacking rings can balance out asymmetries between some rings, giving rise to 2 and 3 ring stack combinations that are overall symmetric or colourless. These combinations are always integer or zero electronic charge. Symmetric rings contain 3 fold symmetries, even though they are hidden, so electron and neutrino rings can exist in stacks. All isomers of each different ring have the same energy if they are the same ring radius. A photon is a stack of particle and anti-particle ring, rotating in the same sense, where each preon has merged with its partner in the opposite ring to reform the original unit volume of space. Longer stacks include the proton and neutron of 7 rings and the stack framework enables the KoL and KoS to be the same mass and yet have different parities. Ring and anti-ring counter-rotating are zerons which inhabit all space at all sizes and form the basis for zero point energy and the Casimir force when rings over the plate separation gap cannot exist within the gap and the imbalance of missing zeron rings drives inward force from the external volumes. There are eight energies that exist within a ring, with four due to charge and four to mass, that balance each other. Of each, two are due to the size of the preon and its spinning frequency and the other two due to these and the velocity of the preon around the ring. The measurement of the preon velocity (ring frequency) by external observers is what drives relativity. In order for all rings to be stable, regardless of the different energies present, the energy of a body due to the presence of charge and mass must be increased or reduced using a ‘field’ formula on a product basis, not a summation of potentials, which also eliminates infinities. Identical treatment of mass and charge energies in this way leads to all the accepted energies of particle systems from atomic to planetary. The introduction of the concept of ‘motional’ energy enables the formation of zero energy of motion and position states (ZEMPs) where QM energy levels are replicated as one side of each ZEMP. Without energy, there is no time related to these states even though they exist within a relativistic energy framework. As can be seen, the concepts of particle mass, electric charge, particle spin, time, colour, and flavour acquire meaning only at the level of the composite systems. For a ring, of observed mass mr composed of preons of mass ± Mo each traveling at velocity vx inside the ring, Er = (gx –1) Mo c2 » ½ Mo vx2

= mr c2.                                                            Mike Lawrence 23 December 2010